Iscsi Initiator Name Format For Essay

"A quick, efficient and cheap method of implementing network storage solutions"


What is iSCSI and its benefits?

iSCSI (Internet Small Computer System Interface) is an IP-based (Internet Protocol) storage networking standard for linking data storage facilities. By carrying SCSI commands over IP networks, iSCSI is used to facilitate data transfer over intranets and to manage storage over long distances. iSCSI can be used to transmit data over LAN (Local Area Networks), WAN (Wide Area Networks) or the Internet and can enable location-independent data storage and retrieval. (quoted from Wikipedia)

When designing their storage infrastructure, SMBs (Small to Medium Businesses) tend to seek a budget-friendly, all-in-one storage solution that can be easily expanded. With the iSCSI service on a QNAP Turbo NAS it can instantly serve as your storage expansion or backup destination for application servers (such as database server, mail server, or for backups). This article demonstrates how you can use the iSCSI target service on Turbo NAS for storage expansion by using different operating systems.

Things to know before starting

In this document, your computer is called an "initiator" because it initiates the connection to the device, which is called a "target".

Please note: It is NOT recommended to connect to the same iSCSI target using two different clients (iSCSI Initiators) at the same time. This may lead to data loss or damage to the disk.

Create an iSCSI target volume

Log in to your Turbo NAS, go to "iSCSI" > "iSCSI Storage" > "Create" to create a new iSCSI target.

Refer to the below images to input the required information to create the iSCSI target.

Enter a name for your target.

This is an optional step to enable authentication. Using authentication is strongly recommended if the Turbo NAS uses a public or open network.

Choose to create an image file on a volume or to allocate space from a storage pool for the iSCSI LUN. The former offers greater flexibility and dynamic allocation, and the latter provides better performance.

Specify the capacity needed.

Confirm the settings.

The iSCSI will be created successfully.

*Allocating the disk space ensures that an iSCSI Target has enough disk space as specified. However, the disk will take longer to create (depending on its given size) and there must be enough space on the physical disk.

Upon successfully creating the iSCSI target, it will be listed on the "iSCSI Target" page with "Ready" status.

Advantages of Thin Provisioning on Turbo NAS
With thin provisioning, the system administrator can flexibly allocate disk space (on the iSCSI Target) to server applications to expand the storage capacity anytime regardless of the current storage size. The addition of the storage space on the servers can be easily done on different operating systems by the iSCSI initiator. Thin provisioning allows efficient storage management as the system administrator has to only monitor the storage capacity of one single server (Turbo NAS) rather than extra hard drives or tapes on other sub-storage systems. Over-allocation is allowed as the storage capacity of the Turbo NAS can be expanded using Online RAID Capacity Expansion.

To connect to the iSCSI target we've just created the tab representing the operating system you are using.

Connect to iSCSI targets using Microsoft iSCSI initiator on Windows

This shows you how to use the iSCSI initiator on Windows to add the iSCSI target (Turbo NAS) as an extra partition. Before you start using the iSCSI target service, ensure you have created an iSCSI target on the Turbo NAS in "Device Configuration" > "iSCSI Target" and installed the correct iSCSI initiator for your OS.

iSCSI Initiator on Windows

The Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator v2.07 is an official application for Windows Server 2003, XP, and 2000 that allows users to implement an external iSCSI storage array over a network. If you are using Windows Vista, 7, 8 or Windows Server 2008 or 2012, the Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator is included by default. For more information (including download links) go to:

Start the iSCSI initiator from "Control Panel" > "Administrative Tools". Under the "Discovery" tab click on "Add Portal". Enter the Turbo NAS IP address and the port number of the iSCSI service.

The available iSCSI targets and their status will then be shown under the "Targets" tab. Select the target you wish to connect to and click "Connect ".

You can click "Advanced" to specify extra connection settings (including authentication) otherwise click "OK" to continue.

The status of the target should now display "Connected".

After the target has been connected Windows will detect its presence and treat it as if a new hard drive has been added which needs to be initialized and formatted before use. Right-click on "My Computer" > "Manage" to open the "Computer Management" window. Go to "Disk Management" and a window should pop-up asking whether you want to initialize the newly-found hard drive. Click "OK" then format this drive as normally you would when adding a new disk.

After disk initialization & formatting, the new drive will be attached to your PC. You can now use this iSCSI target as a regular disk partition.

Connecting to iSCSI targets using globalSAN iSCSI initiator on Mac OS



  1. Run “globalSAN and Xtarget” in "System Preferences".
  2. Click lock icon to unlock and allow for changes. Select “+” > “Portal/Group”.
  3. Enter the IP address or domain name of the NAS. Click “Add”.
  4. Select an iSCSI Target in the left list box, then select “iSCSI Options”.
  5. Select “Always send “Session Type” when connecting”, then select “Done”.
  6. Optional: If CHAP authentication is used, select “Authentication”.
  7. Select “Challenge Handshake Auchentication (CHAP)” to enter name and secret fields. Click “OK”.
  8. Select the connection for the iSCSI target in the right list box. Select “Connect”.

    The iSCSI connection will now appear as “Connected” in the left list box.

If the iSCSI target is not readable by the Mac, a dialog box will prompt the user to initialize the iSCSI target.

Follow the steps below to initialize the iSCSI target:

  1. Select “Initialize…”.
  2. Right-click on the iSCSI target under “External” and select “Erase…”. Note that all of the data on the target will be erased.
  3. Enter the drive name and select the format. Select “Erase”.

Final result:
There will be a iSCSI target icon on the desktop and the target can now be used as an external drive on your Mac.

About Xtend SAN iSCSI Initiator

ATTO's Xtend SAN iSCSI Initiator for Mac OS X allows Mac users to utilize and benefit from iSCSI. It is compatible with Mac OS X 10.4.x to 10.6.x. For more information go to:

After installing the Xtend SAN iSCSI Initiator, you can find it in "Applications".

In the "Discover Targets" tab, you can either choose to "Discover by DNS/IP" or "Discover by iSNS" according to the network topology. In this example, we will use the IP address to discover the iSCSI targets.

Follow the instructions and enter the server address, iSCSI target port number (default: 3260), and CHAP information (if applicable). Once entered, click "Finish" to retrieve the target.

The available iSCSI targets on the Turbo NAS will be displayed. Select the target you want to connect to and click "Add".

You can configure the selected iSCSI target's connection properties in the "Setup" tab.

Click the "Status" tab, select the target to connect to and click "Login" to proceed.

Connect to iSCSI targets using Open-iSCSI Initiator on Ubuntu Linux

This article shows you how to use Linux Open-iSCSI Initiator on Ubuntu to add the iSCSI target (Turbo NAS) as an extra partition. Before you start using the iSCSI target service, ensure you have created an iSCSI target on the Turbo NAS in "Device Configuration" > "iSCSI Target" and installed the correct iSCSI initiator for your OS.

About Linux Open-iSCSI Initiator

The Linux Open-iSCSI Initiator is a built-in package in Ubuntu 8.04 LTS (and later versions). You can connect to an iSCSI volume using a shell prompt with just a few commands. You can find more information about Ubuntu at and more information (including download links) for Open-iSCSI can be found at:

Before you start

Install the open-iscsi package. The package is also known as the Linux Open-iSCSI Initiator.

# sudo apt-get install open-iscsi

Now follow the below steps to connect to an iSCSI target (Turbo NAS) with the Linux Open-iSCSI Initiator.
You may need to modify the iscsid.conf for CHAP information (node.session.auth.username & node.session.auth.password).

# vi /etc/iscsi/iscsid.conf

Save and close the file, then restart the open-iscsi service.

# /etc/init.d/open-iscsi restart

Discover the iSCSI targets on a specific host, e.g. with default port 3260.

# iscsiadm -m discovery -t sendtargets -p

Check the available iSCSI node(s) to connect to.

** You can delete node(s) you don’t want to connect to when the service is on with the following command:

# iscsiadm -m node --op delete --targetname THE_TARGET_IQN

Restart open-iscsi to login to all of the available nodes.

# /etc/init.d/open-iscsi restart

You should be able to see the login message as below: Login session [iface: default, target:, portal:,3260] [ OK ]
Check the device status with dmesg.

Enter the following command to create a partition, /dev/sdb is the device name.

Format the partition.

Mount the file system.

# mount /dev/sdb1 /mnt/iscsi/

That’s it! You can test the I/O speed using the following command:

Below are some “iscsiadm” related commands.
Discover the Targets on the host:

# iscsiadm -m discovery --type sendtargets --portal HOST_IP

Login to a Target:

# iscsiadm –m node --targetname THE_TARGET_IQN --login

Logout from a Target:

# iscsiadm –m node --targetname THE_TARGET_IQN --logout

Delete a Target:

# iscsiadm –m node --op delete --targetname THE_TARGET_IQN



In computing, iSCSI ( ( listen)EYE-skuz-ee) is an acronym for Internet Small Computer Systems Interface, an Internet Protocol (IP)-based storage networking standard for linking data storage facilities. It provides block-level access to storage devices by carrying SCSI commands over a TCP/IP network. iSCSI is used to facilitate data transfers over intranets and to manage storage over long distances. It can be used to transmit data over local area networks (LANs), wide area networks (WANs), or the Internet and can enable location-independent data storage and retrieval.

The protocol allows clients (called initiators) to send SCSI commands (CDBs) to storage devices (targets) on remote servers. It is a storage area network (SAN) protocol, allowing organizations to consolidate storage into storage arrays while providing clients (such as database and web servers) with the illusion of locally attached SCSI disks.[1] It mainly competes with Fibre Channel, but unlike traditional Fibre Channel which usually requires dedicated cabling,[a] iSCSI can be run over long distances using existing network infrastructure.[2] iSCSI was pioneered by IBM and Cisco in 1998 and submitted as a draft standard in March 2000.[3]


In essence, iSCSI allows two hosts to negotiate and then exchange SCSI commands using Internet Protocol (IP) networks. By doing this, iSCSI takes a popular high-performance local storage bus and emulates it over a wide range of networks, creating a storage area network (SAN). Unlike some SAN protocols, iSCSI requires no dedicated cabling; it can be run over existing IP infrastructure. As a result, iSCSI is often seen as a low-cost alternative to Fibre Channel, which requires dedicated infrastructure except in its FCoE (Fibre Channel over Ethernet) form. However, the performance of an iSCSI SAN deployment can be severely degraded if not operated on a dedicated network or subnet (LAN or VLAN), due to competition for a fixed amount of bandwidth.

Although iSCSI can communicate with arbitrary types of SCSI devices, system administrators almost always use it to allow server computers (such as database servers) to access disk volumes on storage arrays. iSCSI SANs often have one of two objectives:

Storage consolidation
Organizations move disparate storage resources from servers around their network to central locations, often in data centers; this allows for more efficiency in the allocation of storage, as the storage itself is no longer tied to a particular server. In a SAN environment, a server can be allocated a new disk volume without any changes to hardware or cabling.
Disaster recovery
Organizations mirror storage resources from one data center to a remote data center, which can serve as a hot standby in the event of a prolonged outage. In particular, iSCSI SANs allow entire disk arrays to be migrated across a WAN with minimal configuration changes, in effect making storage "routable" in the same manner as network traffic.[citation needed]


Further information: SCSI initiator

An initiator functions as an iSCSI client. An initiator typically serves the same purpose to a computer as a SCSI bus adapter would, except that, instead of physically cabling SCSI devices (like hard drives and tape changers), an iSCSI initiator sends SCSI commands over an IP network. An initiator falls into two broad types:

A software initiator uses code to implement iSCSI. Typically, this happens in a kernel-resident device driver that uses the existing network card (NIC) and network stack to emulate SCSI devices for a computer by speaking the iSCSI protocol. Software initiators are available for most popular operating systems and are the most common method of deploying iSCSI.

A hardware initiator uses dedicated hardware, typically in combination with firmware running on that hardware, to implement iSCSI. A hardware initiator mitigates the overhead of iSCSI and TCP processing and Ethernet interrupts, and therefore may improve the performance of servers that use iSCSI. An iSCSI host bus adapter (more commonly, HBA) implements a hardware initiator. A typical HBA is packaged as a combination of a Gigabit (or 10 Gigabit) Ethernet network interface controller, some kind of TCP/IP offload engine (TOE) technology and a SCSI bus adapter, which is how it appears to the operating system. An iSCSI HBA can include PCIoption ROM to allow booting from an iSCSI SAN.

An iSCSI offload engine, or iSOE card, offers an alternative to a full iSCSI HBA. An iSOE "offloads" the iSCSI initiator operations for this particular network interface from the host processor, freeing up CPU cycles for the main host applications. iSCSI HBAs or iSOEs are used when the additional performance enhancement justifies the additional expense of using an HBA for iSCSI,[4] rather than using a software-based iSCSI client (initiator). iSOE may be implemented with additional services such as TCP offload engine (TOE) to further reduce host server CPU usage.


See also: SCSI target

The iSCSI specification refers to a storage resource located on an iSCSI server (more generally, one of potentially many instances of iSCSI storage nodes running on that server) as a target.

An iSCSI target is often a dedicated network-connected hard disk storage device, but may also be a general-purpose computer, since as with initiators, software to provide an iSCSI target is available for most mainstream operating systems.

Common deployment scenarios for an iSCSI target include:

Storage array[edit]

In a data center or enterprise environment, an iSCSI target often resides in a large storage array. These arrays can be in the form of commodity hardware with free-software-based iSCSI implementations, or as commercial products such as in CloudByte, StorTrends, Pure Storage, HP StorageWorks, EqualLogic, Tegile Systems, Nimble storage, Reduxio, IBM Storwize family, Isilon, NetApp filer, EMC Corporation NS-series, CX4, VNX, VNXe, VMAX, Hitachi Data Systems HNAS, or Pivot3 vSTAC.

A storage array usually provides distinct iSCSI targets for numerous clients.[5]

Software target[edit]

See also: List of SAN network management systems

Nearly all modern mainstream server operating systems (such as BSD, Linux, Solaris or Windows Server) can provide iSCSI target functionality, either as a built-in feature or with supplemental software. Some specific-purpose operating systems implement iSCSI target support.

Logical unit number[edit]

Main article: Logical unit number

In SCSI terminology, LUN stands for logical unit, which are specified by unique logical unit numbers. A LUN represents an individually addressable (logical) SCSI device that is part of a physical SCSI device (target). In an iSCSI environment, LUNs are essentially numbered disk drives.[citation needed] An initiator negotiates with a target to establish connectivity to a LUN; the result is an iSCSI connection that emulates a connection to a SCSI hard disk. Initiators treat iSCSI LUNs the same way as they would a raw SCSI or IDE hard drive; for instance, rather than mounting remote directories as would be done in NFS or CIFS environments, iSCSI systems format and directly manage filesystems on iSCSI LUNs.

In enterprise deployments, LUNs usually represent subsets of large RAID disk arrays, often allocated one per client. iSCSI imposes no rules or restrictions on multiple computers sharing individual LUNs; it leaves shared access to a single underlying filesystem as a task for the operating system.

Network booting[edit]

For general data storage on an already-booted computer, any type of generic network interface may be used to access iSCSI devices[citation needed]. However, a generic consumer-grade network interface is not able to boot a diskless computer from a remote iSCSI data source[citation needed]. Instead, it is commonplace for a server to load its initial operating system from a TFTP server or local boot device, and then use iSCSI for data storage once booting from the local device has finished[citation needed].

A separate DHCP server may be configured to assist interfaces equipped with network boot capability to be able to boot over iSCSI. In this case, the network interface looks for a DHCP server offering a PXE or bootp boot image.[6] This is used to kick off the iSCSI remote boot process, using the booting network interface's MAC address to direct the computer to the correct iSCSI boot target[citation needed]. One can then use a software-only approach to load a small boot program which can in turn mount a remote iSCSI target as if it was a local SCSI drive and then fire the boot process from said iSCSI target[citation needed]. This can be achieved using an existing Preboot Execution Environment (PXE) boot ROM, which is available on many wired Ethernet adapters. The boot code can also be loaded from CD/DVD, floppy disk (or floppy disk image) and USB storage, or it can replace existing PXE boot code on adapters that can be re-flashed.[7] The most popular free software to offer iSCSI boot support is iPXE.[8]

Most Intel Ethernet controllers for servers support iSCSI boot.[9]


iSCSI uses TCP (typically TCP ports 860 and 3260) for the protocols itself, with higher-level names used to address the objects within the protocol. Special names refer to both iSCSI initiators and targets. iSCSI provides three name-formats:

iSCSI Qualified Name (IQN)
Format: The iSCSI Qualified Name is documented in RFC 3720, with further examples of names in RFC 3721. Briefly, the fields are:
  • literal iqn (iSCSI Qualified Name)
  • date (yyyy-mm) that the naming authority took ownership of the domain
  • reversed domain name of the authority (e.g. org.alpinelinux, com.example,
  • Optional ":" prefixing a storage target name specified by the naming authority.
From the RFC:[10]
Type.Date.Naming Auth :String defined by Naming Authority :storage:diskarrays-sn-a8675309
Extended Unique Identifier (EUI)
Format: eui.{EUI-64 bit address} (e.g. )
T11 Network Address Authority (NAA)
Format: naa.{NAA 64 or 128 bit identifier} (e.g. )

IQN format addresses occur most commonly. They are qualified by a date (yyyy-mm) because domain names can expire or be acquired by another entity.

The IEEE Registration authority provides EUI in accordance with the EUI-64 standard. NAA is part OUI which is provided by the IEEE Registration Authority. NAA name formats were added to iSCSI in RFC 3980, to provide compatibility with naming conventions used in Fibre Channel and Serial Attached SCSI (SAS) storage technologies.

Usually, an iSCSI participant can be defined by three or four fields:

  1. Hostname or IP Address (e.g., "")
  2. Port Number (e.g., 3260)
  3. iSCSI Name (e.g., the IQN "")
  4. An optional CHAP Secret (e.g., "secretsarefun")


Main article: Internet Storage Name Service

iSCSI initiators can locate appropriate storage resources using the Internet Storage Name Service (iSNS) protocol. In theory, iSNS provides iSCSI SANs with the same management model as dedicated Fibre Channel SANs. In practice, administrators can satisfy many deployment goals for iSCSI without using iSNS.



iSCSI initiators and targets prove their identity to each other using CHAP, which includes a mechanism to prevent cleartext passwords from appearing on the wire. By itself, CHAP is vulnerable to dictionary attacks, spoofing, and reflection attacks. If followed carefully, the best practices for using CHAP within iSCSI reduce the surface for these attacks and mitigate the risks.[11]

Additionally, as with all IP-based protocols, IPsec can operate at the network layer. The iSCSI negotiation protocol is designed to accommodate other authentication schemes, though interoperability issues limit their deployment.

Logical network isolation[edit]

To ensure that only valid initiators connect to storage arrays, administrators most commonly run iSCSI only over logically isolated backchannel networks. In this deployment architecture, only the management ports of storage arrays are exposed to the general-purpose internal network, and the iSCSI protocol itself is run over dedicated network segments or virtual LANs (VLAN). This mitigates authentication concerns; unauthorized users are not physically provisioned for iSCSI, and thus cannot talk to storage arrays. However, it also creates a transitive trust problem, in that a single compromised host with an iSCSI disk can be used to attack storage resources for other hosts.

Physical network isolation[edit]

While iSCSI can be logically isolated from the general network using VLANs only, it is still no different from any other network equipment and may use any cable or port as long as there is a completed signal path between source and target. Just a single cabling mistake by a network technician can compromise the barrier of logical separation, and an accidental bridging may not be immediately detected because it does not cause network errors.

In order to further differentiate iSCSI from the regular network and prevent cabling mistakes when changing connections, administrators may implement self-defined color-coding and labeling standards, such as only using yellow-colored cables for the iSCSI connections and only blue cables for the regular network, and clearly labeling ports and switches used only for iSCSI.

While iSCSI could be implemented as just a VLAN cluster of ports on a large multi-port switch that is also used for general network usage, the administrator may instead choose to use physically separate switches dedicated to iSCSI VLANs only, to further prevent the possibility of an incorrectly connected cable plugged into the wrong port bridging the logical barrier.


Because iSCSI aims to consolidate storage for many servers into a single storage array, iSCSI deployments require strategies to prevent unrelated initiators from accessing storage resources. As a pathological example, a single enterprise storage array could hold data for servers variously regulated by the Sarbanes–Oxley Act for corporate accounting, HIPAA for health benefits information, and PCI DSS for credit card processing. During an audit, storage systems must demonstrate controls to ensure that a server under one regime cannot access the storage assets of a server under another.

Typically, iSCSI storage arrays explicitly map initiators to specific target LUNs; an initiator authenticates not to the storage array, but to the specific storage asset it intends to use. However, because the target LUNs for SCSI commands are expressed both in the iSCSI negotiation protocol and in the underlying SCSI protocol, care must be taken to ensure that access control is provided consistently.

Confidentiality and integrity[edit]

For the most part, iSCSI operates as a cleartext protocol that provides no cryptographic protection for data in motion during SCSI transactions. As a result, an attacker who can listen in on iSCSI Ethernet traffic can:[12]

  • Reconstruct and copy the files and filesystems being transferred on the wire
  • Alter the contents of files by injecting fake iSCSI frames
  • Corrupt filesystems being accessed by initiators, exposing servers to software flaws in poorly tested filesystem code.

These problems do not occur only with iSCSI, but rather apply to any SAN protocol without cryptographic security. IP-based security protocols, such as IPsec, can provide standards-based cryptographic protection to this traffic.


Operating systems[edit]

The dates in the following table denote the first appearance of a native driver in each operating system. Third-party drivers for Windows and Linux were available as early as 2001, specifically for attaching IBM's IP Storage 200i appliance.[13]

OSFirst release dateVersionFeatures
i5/OS2006-10i5/OS V5R4M0Target, Multipath
VMware ESX2006-06ESX 3.0, ESX 4.0, ESXi 5.x, ESXi 6.xInitiator, Multipath
AIX2002-10AIX 5.3 TL10, AIX 6.1 TL3Initiator, Target
Windows2003-062000, XP Pro, 2003, Vista, 2008, 2008 R2, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2012, Windows 8.1, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows 10, Windows Server 2016Initiator, Target,[b] Multipath
NetWare2003-08NetWare 5.1, 6.5, & OESInitiator, Target
HP-UX2003-10HP 11i v1, HP 11i v2, HP 11i v3Initiator
Solaris2002-05Solaris 10, OpenSolarisInitiator, Target, Multipath, iSER
Linux2005-062.6.12, 3.1Initiator (2.6.12), Target (3.1), Multipath, iSER, VAAI[c]
NetBSD2002-064.0, 5.0Initiator (5.0), Target (4.0)
FreeBSD2008-027.0Initiator (7.0), Target (10.0), Multipath, iSER, VAAI[c]
OpenVMS2002-088.3-1H1Initiator, Multipath


Most iSCSI targets involve disk, though iSCSI tape and medium-changer targets are popular as well. So far, physical devices have not featured native iSCSI interfaces on a component level. Instead, devices with Parallel SCSI or Fibre Channel interfaces are bridged by using iSCSI target software, external bridges, or controllers internal to the device enclosure.

Alternatively, it is possible to virtualize disk and tape targets. Rather than representing an actual physical device, an emulated virtual device is presented. The underlying implementation can deviate drastically from the presented target as is done with virtual tape library (VTL) products. VTLs use disk storage for storing data written to virtual tapes. As with actual physical devices, virtual targets are presented by using iSCSI target software, external bridges, or controllers internal to the device enclosure.

In the security products industry, some manufacturers use an iSCSI RAID as a target, with the initiator being either an IP-enabled encoder or camera.

Converters and bridges[edit]

Multiple systems exist that allow Fibre Channel, SCSI and SAS devices to be attached to an IP network for use via iSCSI. They can be used to allow migration from older storage technologies, access to SANs from remote servers and the linking of SANs over IP networks. An iSCSI gateway bridges IP servers to Fibre Channel SANs. The TCP connection is terminated at the gateway, which is implemented on a Fibre Channel switch or as a standalone appliance.

See also[edit]



  1. ^Rouse, Margaret (May 2011). "iSCSI (Internet Small Computer System Interface)". SearchStorage. Retrieved 3 November 2012. 
  2. ^"ISCSI SAN: Key Benefits, Solutions & Top Providers Of Storage Area Networking". Tredent Network Solutions. Retrieved 3 November 2012. 
  3. ^"iSCSI proof-of-concept at IBM Research Haifa". IBM. Retrieved 13 September 2013. 
  4. ^"Chelsio Demonstrates Next Generation 40G iSCSI at SNW Spring". 2013-04-03. Retrieved 2014-06-28. 
  5. ^Architecture and Dependability of Large-Scale Internet Services David Oppenheimer and David A. Patterson, Berkeley, IEEE Internet Computing, September–October 2002.
  6. ^"Chainloading iPXE". Retrieved 2013-11-11. 
  7. ^"Burning iPXE into ROM". Retrieved 2013-11-11. 
  8. ^"iPXE - Open Source Boot Firmware". Retrieved 2013-11-11. 
  9. ^"Intel Ethernet Controllers". Retrieved 2012-09-18. 
  10. ^"RFC 3720 - Internet Small Computer Systems Interface (iSCSI), (Section Type "iqn." (iSCSI Qualified Name))". April 2004. p. 32. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  11. ^Satran, Julian; Kalman, Meth; Sapuntzakis, Costa; Zeidner, Efri; Chadalapaka, Mallikarjun (2004-04-02). "RFC 3720". 
  12. ^"Protecting an iSCSI SAN". VMWare. Retrieved 3 November 2012. 
  13. ^"IBM IP storage 200i general availability". IBM. Retrieved 13 September 2013. 
  14. ^"Windows Storage Server | NAS | File Management". Microsoft. Retrieved 2012-09-18. 

Further reading[edit]

  • RFC 3720 - Internet Small Computer Systems Interface (iSCSI) (obsolete)
  • RFC 3721 - Internet Small Computer Systems Interface (iSCSI) Naming and Discovery (updated)
  • RFC 3722 - String Profile for Internet Small Computer Systems Interface (iSCSI) Names
  • RFC 3723 - Securing Block Storage Protocols over IP (Scope: The use of IPsec and IKE to secure iSCSI, iFCP, FCIP, iSNS and SLPv2.)
  • RFC 3347 - Small Computer Systems Interface protocol over the Internet (iSCSI) Requirements and Design Considerations
  • RFC 3783 - Small Computer Systems Interface (SCSI) Command Ordering Considerations with iSCSI
  • RFC 3980 - T11 Network Address Authority (NAA) Naming Format for iSCSI Node Names (obsolete)
  • RFC 4018 - Finding Internet Small Computer Systems Interface (iSCSI) Targets and Name Servers by Using Service Location Protocol version 2 (SLPv2)
  • RFC 4173 - Bootstrapping Clients using the Internet Small Computer System Interface (iSCSI) Protocol
  • RFC 4544 - Definitions of Managed Objects for Internet Small Computer System Interface (iSCSI)
  • RFC 4850 - Declarative Public Extension Key for Internet Small Computer Systems Interface (iSCSI) Node Architecture (obsolete)
  • RFC 4939 - Definitions of Managed Objects for iSNS (Internet Storage Name Service)
  • RFC 5048 - Internet Small Computer System Interface (iSCSI) Corrections and Clarifications (obsolete)
  • RFC 5047 - DA: Datamover Architecture for the Internet Small Computer System Interface (iSCSI)
  • RFC 5046 - Internet Small Computer System Interface (iSCSI) Extensions for Remote Direct Memory Access (RDMA)
  • RFC 7143 – Internet Small Computer System Interface (iSCSI) Protocol (consolidated)

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