Discovery Of Mesopotamian Civilization Essay

Mesopotamia: The First Civilization Essay

Around 3,000 B.C., the Sumerians began to colonize the fertile valleys between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. This area was called Mesopotamia, which in Greek means, "land between the rivers." Through their developments of writing, architecture, economy, government, religion, agriculture, and technology, the Sumerians created what we know today as civilized life.

The greatest achievement of the Sumerians was the invention of cuneiform style writing. They would engrave their picture words using reeds as a writing instrument on wet clay, which would then dry into stone-hard tablets. Eventually, they converted their picture words to a short-hand consisting of wedged lines created by bending the reed against the wet clay and moving the end closest to the hand back and forth once. We still use a short-hand form of writing today.

The Sumerians architectural achievements were most impressive. They were masters of construction using bricks made of mud. They developed vast extensive buildings, elaborate brick house, palaces, and temples. The Sumerians developed the arch and the column. These accomplishments greatly influenced our civilization.

Mesopotamia was divided into independent city-states. The cities were centers of trade. Their economy relied heavily on foreign and domestic trade. Trade and commerce developed in Mesopotamia, because the farmers grew more food than they could eat. They used the surplus to trade for goods and services. Many aspects of our modern enterprise economy have their roots in the early civilizations of Mesopotamia.

The Sumerians seem to have developed one of the worlds first systems of monarchy. Because their government was based on religion, a priest-king administered the...

Loading: Checking Spelling

0%

Read more

Culture in the Indus Valley Civilization The Indus Valley Civilization was the first civilization to develop in South Asia. This civilization developed around 2500 BC,

1953 words - 8 pages Untitled Culture in the Indus Valley Civilization The Indus Valley...

Comparison essay on Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt, one page max

554 words - 2 pages Mesopotamia and Ancient EgyptThe first, true civilizations in ancient times both formed near prominent rivers. These first civilizations developed in the Middle East, Mesopotamia between the Tigris and Euphrates and Egypt by the Nile River. Egypt and Mesopotamia are examples of some early river-valley civilizations that relied heavily on its geographies and the surrounding...

Difference Between Water In Egypt And Mesopotamia

689 words - 3 pages Water was more important to the development of a working civilization in Ancient Egypt than Mesopotamia for the following reasons: irrigation, drinking, resources and trade. Although these factors were used by both Egypt and Mesopotamia, the latter had a better understanding and control over water than Mesopotamia. Mesopotamia (3500 B.C.E. - 530 B.C.E.) was located in northeast Syria, which is now know today as Iraq. It was...

Importance Of Water For Ancient Egypt Vs. Mesopotamia

701 words - 3 pages World History Assignment #2 Water was more important to the development of a working civilization in Ancient Egypt than Mesopotamia for the following reasons: irrigation, drinking, resources and trade. Although these factors were used by both Egypt and Mesopotamia, the latter had a better understanding and control over water than Mesopotamia. Mesopotamia (3500 B.C.E. - 530 B.C.E.) was located in northeast Syria, which is...

What are the first few civilizations? If so, why is

545 words - 2 pages What are the first few civilizations? If so, why is it that they are considered civilizations, and what about them? The first few river-valley civilizations are considered to be civilizations by our scholars, and each of those civilizations' characteristics, advantages by creating societies, and things that we should remember will prove them to be civilizations---as well as explain a little bit about each of those civilizations. ...

egypt and mesopotamia

625 words - 3 pages Two of the earliest and greatest civilizations, Mesopotamia and Egypt, show the transition from a Paleolithic society into a settled civilization. Both cultures had established kings; however, the Pharaoh is the god-king of Egypt, while in Mesopotamia the monarchs are priest-kings whom serve the gods. Although Mesopotamia and Egypt have some characteristics in common, which bring them under the “First Civilizations” category, their...

Ancient Egypt vs. Ancient Mesopotamia

568 words - 2 pages Thousands of years ago, there were two ancient civilizations, Egypt and Mesopotamia. Both were quite remarkable in technology and language, but each civilization had different advances. These two ancient cultures were also located close to each other, but their geographies were a bit different resulting in varied farming methods. The last thing that Egypt and Mesopotamia both had was religion, though each of their religious practices was unique....

Mesopotamia Urbanization

1384 words - 6 pages In ancient times, Mesopotamia was known as the “Land between rivers”. The two main rivers that ran parallel to each other in Mesopotamia were called the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. The Tigris River was the more unpredictable river to the East of the Euphrates River and the second largest river in the region. The Euphrates River is the larger of the two rivers and is located to the West of the Tigris river. Both rivers flowed from Eastern...

Mesopotamia: Geography, environment and culture during the fourth millennium B.C.

563 words - 2 pages Mesopotamian myth seems to be a common touchstone, as if the first culture to develop the written language. Mesopotamia lies in the valley formed by the neighboring rivers, the Tigris and the Euphrates. The birth of civilization in this region was shaped by the Mesopotamia's geography, environment and culture during the fourth...

Comparison and contrast of Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley

1508 words - 6 pages Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley civilizations have long been compared throughout history and were both some of the earliest civilizations in the world. Mesopotamia, also known as, 'the land between the rivers,' was named for the triangular area between the Tigris and the Euphrates rivers. This area has been extended and now covers modern day Iraq, adding ancient...

Ancient Civilizations

783 words - 3 pages ANT 350 - Ancient Civilizations Prof. Susan Smiley 350 essay mcu4 - p PAGE 4 Urbanization and a centralized governing body are two key factors in determining a civilization. These large dense populations also known as cities are characterized by their interdependence and specialization with surrounding rural inhabitants (Scarre 2003:6). People...


Ancient Mesopotamia


Ancient Mesopotamia refers to the place where humans first formed civilizations. It was here that people first gathered in large cities, learned to write, and created governments. For this reason Mesopotamia is often called the "Cradle of Civilization".


Map of Mesopotamia by Atanas Kostovski

Geography

The word Mesopotamia means "the land between rivers". When people say Mesopotamia they are referring to a section of land in the Middle East between and around the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. Today this land is located mostly in the country of Iraq. There are also portions in southwestern Iran, southeastern Turkey, and northeastern Syria.

The heart of Mesopotamia lies between the two rivers in southern Iraq. The land there is fertile and there is plenty of water around the major two rivers to allow for irrigation and farming.

Civilizations and Empires

Early settlers in Mesopotamia started to gather in small villages and towns. As they learned how to irrigate land and grow crops on large farms, the towns grew bigger. Eventually these towns became large cities. New inventions such as government and writing were formed to help keep order in the cities. The first human civilization was formed.

Sumer - The Sumerians were the first humans to form a civilization. They invented writing and government. They were organized in city-states where each city had its own independent government ruled by a king that controlled the city and the surrounding farmland. Each city also had its own primary god. Sumerian writing, government, and culture would pave the way for future civilizations.

Akkadians - The Akkadians came next. They formed the first united empire where the city-states of the Sumer were united under one ruler. The Akkadian language replaced the Sumerian language during this time. It would be the main language throughout much of the history of Mesopotamia.

Babylonians - The city of Babylon became the most powerful city in Mesopotamia. Throughout the history of the region, the Babylonians would rise and fall. At times the Babylonians would create vast empires that ruled much of the Middle East. The Babylonians were the first to write down and record their system of law.

Assyrians - The Assyrians came out of the northern part of Mesopotamia. They were a warrior society. They also ruled much of the Middle East at different times over the history of Mesopotamia. Much of what we know about the history of Mesopotamia comes from clay tablets found in Assyrian cities.

Persians - The Persians put an end to the rule of the Assyrians and the Babylonians. They conquered much of the Middle East including Mesopotamia.

Interesting Facts About Mesopotamia
  • The Babylonian law created by King Hammurabi, the Code of Hammurabi, may be the oldest written law in the world.
  • The Sumerians are often credited with inventing the wheel.
  • At the center of each major city was a temple to the city's god called a ziggurat.
  • The Tigris and the Euphrates Rivers are both well over 1,000 miles long.
  • Because this is where people first began to write, Mesopotamia is often called the place where history began.
  • Mesopotamia is part of a larger area that archeologists call the Fertile Crescent.
  • Many of the buildings, walls, and structures were made from sun-dried bricks. These bricks didn't last long, so very little of Ancient Mesopotamian cities still stand.
  • Much of what we know about Mesopotamian history comes from thousands of clay tablets found in the library at the Assyrian city of Nineveh.
Activities
  • Take a ten question quiz about this page.
  • Crossword Puzzle
  • Word Search

  • Listen to a recorded reading of this page:



Learn More about Ancient Mesopotamia:


Works Cited

Back to History

Parents and Teachers: Support Ducksters by following us on or .

0 thoughts on “Discovery Of Mesopotamian Civilization Essay

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *