LawBreakers (2017, PC)
By Yue Zhang / October 2, 2017
It hurts me to write this, because the devs are great, but it's important to figure out exactly why a game with such a good concept went from 8000 players to 100 a month after release.
I really wanted to like this game, because it looks amazing and the mechanics are innovative and fast-paced. But after trying it, I realized the real reasons why it has a low playerbase.
Above all else, the game feels awkward, clunky, and the mechanics, graphics, map design and gun fall-off, all detract from my fun instead of adding to it. It's like I'm fighting the mechanics and lack of gravity, instead of smoothly controlling my character. The movement and gun mechanics of this game are off.
This is caused by a combination of bad design decisions that made no logical sense and took away enjoyment from players:
- The camera is wrong: imagine if this game used a third-person camera instead of first. With the constant dashing, 360 awareness, movement, and aiming, and CQB-focused combat, and getting knocked around constantly, a third-person camera would’ve made more sense.
This is why this game feels off to players, it’s because from first-person view, the action feels like a mess, and you feel the camera and player controls limit what you’re trying to accomplish in this environment. None of the guns require iron sights to aim or manage their recoil, and they don't fire long range anyways, so they're using a first-person camera to their detriment, and put in none of the benefits. The player has to fight with the camera constantly, and it takes away a huge chunk of enjoyment and fun. This is a third-person game stuck in a first-person perspective, a huge factor that affects all of the following.
- CQB-focused combat. The game REALLY wants you to be within ten meters of your enemies. The gun damage has huge drop off, and the maps are made to be congested and tight spaces to force close-range encounters. There are no snipers, one-hit weapons, or any long range weapons for that matter. See that guy 20m away from you? You can't damage him, unless you dash really close to him.
- Objectives that encourage deathball, which have no counters. All objectives need you to physically dive into the enemy deathball. Combined with CQB focus, and no long-range or explosive weapons, it makes this game one-dimensional. It takes control away from the player, and forces them to play a certain way.
- In a game that is already hard to land hits, it takes five direct hits from the rocket launcher to kill an enemy. The explosive weapons have a very small radius of splash damage. The enemies can cluster up around an objective, and there's nothing any class can do to punish their deathball. There is very little you can do versus a deathball grouped-up near an objective. There are no major AOEs that make them scatter, since the explosive weapons have so little splash.
- Map size: why would you have massive open spaces, if your guns can't hit-scan long range, and have significant damage drop off? This feels really awkward. If you want to make guns ineffective long range, add a recoil system. In 0G large open areas, it's hard enough to hit enemies, but you make the guns do nothing at a range greater than 10m. If you want a CQB game, don't put in massive open 0G spaces that are 300m in diameter. It's not fun to chase someone down at that range! Either give me the tools to deal with long range, or don't put in large places in the map.
- Players are already dodging most shots, and the few shots that do land don't do any damage. This results in awkward and unfun gun fights.
- The guns don't feel impactful, because the enemies are bullet sponges.
- Overly saturated graphics. The screen is always filled with bright effects, even in the maps, there are way too many effects going on in the background, and it's distracting. If you're going to make a fast-paced twitch shooter, with unpredictable and fast movement, it's probably better if you just made the walls and ceilings white blank spaces, instead of neon and blurry sparks everywhere. I'm disoriented enough from gun fire 360 degrees around, chasing enemies that are hopping everywhere, teleportation, and dashing, and being smacked around, I don't need the map to be filled with neon lights to make this worse. It would've been better if the maps where just solid blank walls.
- The zero-gravity environment actually takes away from the mechanics. It's awkward because 0G areas are not really 100% 0G, there's some G just to make it awkward for you, and also you can fall to your death in 0G areas, which makes no sense. The constant switching between 0G and regular G is nauseating, and awkward. Either have all 0G map or gravity map, don't mix both in the map. Constantly switching between the two actually interrupts the flow, and I don't enjoy it.
- This is made worse by having no clear distinctive indicators that I'm in a zero-gravity or regular environment. Sometimes in the heat of battle, I need to know to make the right movement decisions. I can see a minor blur and hear a minor sound, but this is lost when I'm chasing or being chased by enemies. I can never get to where I'm trying to go. "Now I can float, now I can't, now I can, now I can't."
- I can't move in the direction I want to go without aiming in that direction. If you're going to allow 0G, you need to give me full 360 controls. I NEED to be able to move 360 degrees in any direction, while aiming independently. In 0G I can't even drop or float up, I need to look at where I want to go, instead of aiming at my enemies. Aiming is already hectic enough in 0G, why can't you give me independent movement controls? Why can't I dash sideways, and double-jump on all characters? It's a movement-focused game, why take all these regular mechanics away?
- There's an odd delay between my inputs and what is shown on screen, like the game is a few ms behind what I'm trying to tell it to do. In such a fast-paced game, the controls need to be tighter. I have the game on lowest setting, and my ping is great, so it's just something in the game causing this odd delay, making the controls feel worse.
Others who left probably felt this awkwardness in controls, consciously or subconsciously, and just stopped playing. These issues can be fixed by giving guns full damage at all ranges, implementing independent 360-degree movement controls, and putting in a non-obtrusive indicator you're in 0G, like a loud hum sound.
Most importantly, make up your mind about the following. Either:
1) make it a fast-paced shooter where you can dodge bullets that can kill you fast, in maps with confined spaces, OR
2) make it a slow-paced shooter where you can't dodge as quickly, and have long-range weapons and open-ended maps.
The deadly combination of fast-paced movement and a huge health pool makes the game really awkward, and not FUN. This drove away most of the playerbase that liked the game in the first place.
At its current state, it takes five-six slow slashes with an Assassin sword to kill someone at melee range. It takes five direct rocket hits to kill the average enemy. Rockets with no manual detonation.
Chasing down enemies for 15 seconds, while switching between 0G and full-G environments, while having your weapons do minimum damage, is not fun mechanics.
Having your enemies get away over and over after you've been chasing them and shooting them, is not fun.
Floating in a large 0G open space with CQB weapons is NOT fun.
Match your environment with the game mechanics, and make this game fun again. These are the reasons people don't play this game.
It was not the timing or the marketing that led to a player drop from 8000 to 100 in one month, but the lack of a fun game underneath the flashy awesome exterior. At the end of the day, people are either having fun playing your game, or they're not and leave. Put fun stuff to do in your game, and make them work.
This is a list of courses offered in the current and upcoming semester, together with course descriptions specific to the instructors teaching the course.
For a list of course offerings generated by the university registrar, listing rooms, times, CRNs, and generic course descriptions from Course Explorer, click on the appropriate semester in the menu to the left.
For a list of all courses offered by the Philosophy Department, with information about how regularly they are offered, click here .
PHIL 100 - Intro to Philosophy-ACP ~ Weinberg
We will examine a variety of philosophical topics including: what a person is, whether we have free will, whether the universe has an intelligent designer, whether the existence of evil is compatible with the existence of God, whether one can truly have knowledge of the external world, whether it is rational to fear death, whether abortion is morally permissible, and whether it is wrong to eat meat.
Consideration of some main problems of philosophy concerning, for example, knowledge, God, mind and body, and human freedom. Course is identical to PHIL 101 except for the additional writing component. Credit is not given for both PHIL 100 and PHIL 101. Prerequisite: Completion of campus Composition I general education requirement.
PHIL 101 – Introduction to Philosophy ~
We will examine a variety of philosophical topics including: what a person is, whether there can be free will, whether the universe has an intelligent designer, whether there can be morality if there is no God, whether the existence of evil is compatible with the existence of God, whether one can truly have knowledge of the external world, whether time travel is possible, whether it is rational to fear death, whether abortion is morally permissible, whether the war on drugs is unjust, and whether it is wrong to eat meat.
PHIL 102 – Logic and Reasoning~ Gilbert
Practical study of logical reasoning. Involves studying informal fallacies and syllogistic logic and assessing the logical coherence of what we read and write.
PHIL 103 – Logic and Reasoning QR II~ Livengood
Logic and Reasoning is an introductory logic course concerned with understanding the goodness (or badness) of various kinds of argument. The course is divided into four units: Zeroth-Order (Sentential) Logic, First-Order (Predicate) Logic, Set and Probability Theory, and Causal and Statistical Reasoning. The course takes a more formal, mathematical approach than PHIL 102, and so, it satisfies a level-two quantitative reasoning requirement (QRII).
PHIL 104 - Introduction to Ethics ACP* ~ Sussman
This course will consider different ways of understanding the distinction between what is morally right and wrong. We will focus on consequentialist theories, that see morality as a matter of improving the world, contractarian views, that see morality in terms of a kind of idealized agreement for human interactions, Kantian theory, which focuses on the idea of respect for rational agents, and virtue theoretical accounts that take ideals of human character and human flourishing as their starting points. These theories will be explored with reference to such contemporary issues as abortion, the treatment of animals, and world poverty.
*This course satisfies the Advanced Composition General Education Requirement
PHIL 105 – Introduction to Ethics~ Varden
Some basic questions of ethics, discussed in the light of influential ethical theories and with reference to specific moral problems, such as: what makes an action morally right? are moral standards absolute or relative? what is the relation between personal morality and social morality, and between social morality and law?
PHIL 106 – Ethics and Social Policy~ Murphy
Examination of the moral aspects of social problems, and a survey of ethical principles formulated to validate social policy.
PHIL 107 - Introduction to Political Philosophy ~ Varden
Because some of the best philosophical theories of justice were developed in the early modern/modern period (17th-18th c.), contemporary theorists go back to them in developing their own theories and in reflecting upon current legal-political and social affairs. In this course we will explore four of these great classical theories (Hobbes’s Leviathan, Locke’s Two Treatises of Government, Rousseau’s The Social Contract, and Kant’s “Doctrine of Right” in The Metaphysics of Morals) with a focus on the nature of political obligations and political legitimacy. In each case, we will pay special attention to questions concerning the nature of enforceable rights, why we need states, and the nature of a legitimate state. Exploring these questions through the lenses of these thinkers gives us invaluable tools with which to think through many contemporary issues – from very general ones, such as the complementary role of the legislative, judiciary, and executive powers of the state – to more specific ones, such as public education and health care provision, same-sex marriage, abortion, and poverty relief.
PHIL 109 – Religion and Society in West II~ Rosenstock
Introduction to classic writers and texts in Western religious and social thought from the Enlightenment to the present, with emphasis on their social and historical contexts.
Same as ANTH 109, PHIL 109, and SOC 109.
PHIL 110 – World Religions~
Survey of the leading living religions, including Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam; examination of basic texts and of philosophic theological elaborations of each religion.
Same as PHIL 110. This course can be used to fulfill either Western or Nonwestern general education categories, but not both.
PHIL 191 – Freshman Honors Tutorial~
Study of selected topics on an individually arranged basis. Open only to honors majors or to Cohn Scholars and Associates.
May be repeated one time. Prerequisite: Consent of departmental honors advisor.
PHIL 202 - Symbolic Logic ~ Gilbert
This course will study the nature of deductive inference through the construction of a formal language in which such inferences may be expressed. The deductive forms we will consider, comprising what is called elementary logic or quantification theory, are versatile enough to encompass much of our reasoning about relations between objects. Part of the course will consist in applying these formal methods to concrete reasoning situations, and part of it will involve a study of questions about the scope and adequacy of these methods.
PHIL 203 - Ancient Philosophy ~ Wengert
This course is an introduction to the philosophical thought of the ancient world. The course will concentrate on the Greeks, in particular, on the Pre-Socratics, Plato and Aristotle, concluding with Hellenistic philosophy, where we will read writings of the Stoics, Epicureans and Skeptics.
We will start right in by reading some of Plato’s lively early dialogues. There will be a good bit of reading required. Some of the readings will be great fun, even charming; some of the readings will be dark and obscure. I hope that my lectures will enlighten the latter and not detract from the former. Discussion and reasoned disagreement are encouraged.
There will be two papers, five on-line quizzes and a final:
Papers: An initial five page paper. A final paper of about ten pages.
Quizzes: five on-line quizzes will be spaced over the semester, examining recently covered material. These are not as intimidating as they sound. You will be given a copy of each quiz beforehand so you can go over them as you read the material.
Exams: There will be no midterm, but there will be a final.
Readings in Ancient Greek Philosophy: From Thales to Aristotle. S. Marc Cohen, Patricia Curd, and C.D.C. Reeve (eds). Paperback, 4th edition/Hackett Publishing Co., 2011
Ancient Philosophy: Volume 1 of A New History of Western Philosophy. Anthony Kenny. Paperback/Oxford University Press, 2006. Also available on Kindle.
Hellenistic philosophy: Introductory Readings, trans. by Brad Inwood and L.P. Gerson. Paperback 2nd edition Hackett Publishing Co., 1997
Course Booklet available on-line.
PHIL 206 - Early Modern Philosophy ~ Newton
What is the relation between mind and world? What can we know with certainty and how reliable are our scientific explanations?What is the role of reason and of the senses in the attainment of knowledge?In this course, we will attempt to answer these metaphysical andepistemologicalquestions by focusing on the major philosophical figures of the 17thand 18thcenturies. The overarching theme of the course is an investigation into skepticism and the nature of human understanding as undertaken by the rationalists (Descartes and Leibniz), the empiricists (Locke, Berkeley, and Hume), and Kant.
PHIL 214 - Biomedical Ethics ~ Ben Moshe
Constant changes in healthcare settings, coupled with rapid advancements in technology, lead to increasingly complicated ethical dilemmas: Who decides what—patients, doctors or family members—and on what basis? What are the ends of the medical profession and how do they bear on what doctors can and cannot provide their patients? Can doctors refuse to provide treatment for conscientious reasons? Are abortions, physician assisted suicides, organ sales, and commercial surrogacies morally permissible? In this course, we will attempt to answer these (and other) pressing questions. We will commence the course by analyzing two key concepts that are utilized in medical ethics debates: autonomy and paternalism. We will then discuss the nature and sources of the ends of the medical profession, and the circumstances, if any, in which the physician can deviate from these ends (including physician conscientious objection). We will then proceed to examine specific medical ethical dilemmas surrounding the beginning and end of life:abortion, physician assisted suicide andeuthanasia, and the treatment of demented patients. We will conclude the course byanalyzing the moral limits of markets and utilize our analysis in order to understand the moral status of organ sales and commercial surrogacy.
PHIL 250 - Conceptions of Human Nature ~ Varden
This course starts by exploring three important theories of human nature in the history of philosophy, those of Hobbes, Rousseau, and Kant. We will examine how these accounts explain emotions, self-consciousness, and moral (ethical and legal) responsibility, all crucially relevant aspects of human nature. We will also pay attention to the way in which these theories are such that different groups of human beings end up unequal in various ways. Given what we have discovered in these accounts, we will then look at contemporary discussions of diversity and dehumanization, namely sexism, racism, and aggression against members of the LGBTQIA community.
PHIL 270 - Philosophy of Science ~ Weaver
PHIL 270 is an introductory level survey course that aims to inform students about the
main philosophical positions, and the main philosophical controversies on various issues
in analytic philosophy of science. The course includes introductory level readings on the
central themes of philosophy of science from leading voices in the discipline. The course
provides an opportunity for students to articulate and defend a thesis related to the topics
addressed in the readings or lectures by way of authoring one argumentative research
PHIL 307 - Elements Semantics & Pragmatics ~ Schreiner
Introduction to the theory of meaning for natural language, including techniques for the description of lexical meaning, compositional determination of phrase and sentence meaning, and pragmatic effects on interpretation in context.
PHIL 316 – Ethics and Engineering ~ Hillmer
(SAME AS ECE 316)
“Ethics and Engineering” is a broad-ranging course in moral theory and practice, open to all disciplines and all majors. The principles studied throughout the semester are applicable to all career paths, and all who are interested are welcome to be members of the class. The course will be structured in three interrelated parts — (1) an introduction to the central themes of the course, (2) a focused study of normative ethics, and (3) an exploration of ethical issues in the practice of a profession applied in the context of engineering, including safety and liability, professional responsibility to clients and employers, legal obligations, codes of ethics, and career choice. A primary objective of our journey in this course will be to explore the fundamental structure of human personhood, the grounding of moral action, and the development of moral character as the precondition of integral work in a profession. Case studies will provide an important methodological lens for our discussions together in class.
The course fulfills credit as an upperdivision class in advanced composition, for which the University of Illinois requires twenty to thirty pages of revised writing as a minimum standard. In order to fulfill this requirement, each member of the class will write and revise three response papers — an article analysis (three pages), a case study (three pages), and a paper on normative ethical theories (six pages) — a research paper on a topic of your own choosing (ten pages), and a personal mission statement reflecting on your life work and career path (three pages). All members of the course will also give a ten-minute presentation on their research project in class at the end of the semester. The research paper and class presentation function together as the final examination for the course. We will be using as a textbook the fourth edition of Engineering Ethics: Concepts and Cases by Harris, Pritchard, and Rabins (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 2009), together with an integrated three-volume set of readings in moral theory and applied ethics available through the Illini Union Bookstore.
PHIL 380 - Current Controversies ~ Varden
Topic: Philosophy of Sex, Love, and Gender.
This course focuses on central themes explored in historical and current research on the philosophy of sex, love, and gender. We will look at a set of issues, namely embodiment, gender and sexual identity and orientation, marriage, sexual violence, trade in sexual services, and oppression. Among the philosophers whose works we will engage are Nancy Bauer, Talia Bettcher, Simone de Beauvoir, Judith Butler, Annie Cahill, Ann Cudd, Penelope Deutscher, Elizabeth Emens, Michel Foucault, Carol Hay, Barbara Herman, Cressida Heyes, Rae Langton, Rachel McKinnon, Martha Nussbaum, Laurie Shrage, Anita Superson, and Shay Welsh.
PHIL 390 - Individual Study ~
Readings in selected philosophical topics. Course may be taken by honors students in partial fulfillment of department honors requirements.
May be repeated to a maximum of 6 hours in separate terms. Prerequisite: Open to juniors and seniors with a grade-point average of 3.0 only by prior arrangement with a member of the faculty and with consent of the department director of undergraduate studies or the chair.
PHIL 410 - Classical Ancient Philosophers ~ Sanders
For roughly 2/3 of the semester, we will use ancient accounts of Socrates’ trial to structure our investigation into the historical figure of Socrates and his cultural/philosophical milieu. The last 1/3 of the semester will be largely devoted to a look at some of Plato’s so-called “Socratic” dialogues and key issues in the “philosophy of Socrates” as represented therein. If time permits, we will also look briefly at the reception of Socrates by a selection of later philosophers.
PHIL 412 - Hobbes and Spinoza ~ Weinberg
Hobbes and Spinoza are hardly neglected thinkers. ButHobbes is usually studied for his political thought, even though he was also very important for his natural philosophy and his materialistic conception of the human being. AndSpinoza is usually studied for his metaphysics, though he was also very important for his politics. Though both were very skeptical of traditional religion and are considered atheists by some readers, religion is very important to both of their systems of thought. In this class, we will examine the interconnections between metaphysics and natural philosophy, politics and religion in these two thinkers. We will be reading selections from the writings of both of these thinkers, including sections of Hobbes' Leviathan andElements of Law and sections of Spinoza'sEthics and Tractatus Theologico-Politicus.
PHIL 414 - Major Recent Philosophers ~ McCarthy
Topic: Hilary Putnam
Hilary Putnam, who died in March, 2016, was one of the most influential and sharply original of recent American philosophers. Putnam’s work transformed the philosophy of language, the philosophy of mind, and metaphysics, and played a central role in logic and the philosophy of science. This course will trace the development of the major themes in Putnam’s philosophy. Central to the discussion will be the intricate links between Putnam’s work and that of his Harvard colleague W.V.O. Quine: much of Putnam’s work can be seen as a reaction, positive or negative, to Quine’s, the early work largely negative and the middle to later work much more positive. Among the works of Putnam we shall consider are a number of articles from Putnam’s Philosophical Papers, volumes I-III, covering the period 1960-82 (Cambridge), Meaning and the Moral Sciences (Routledge, 1978), Reason, Truth and History (Cambridge, 1981), and The Threefold Cord (Columbia, 1999).
Course requirements: two 8-10 page papers and a course presentation.
PHIL 419 – Space, Time, and Matter-ACP ~ Ceperley
Philosophical examination of some fundamental concepts and theories of the physical world, such as time, matter, space, and geometry; interpretation of quantum theory. Identical to PHYS 420 except for the additional writing component including a final term paper.
PHIL 420 – Space, Time, and Matter ~ Ceperley
Philosophical examination of some fundamental concepts and theories of the physical world, such as time, matter, space, and geometry; interpretation of quantum theory.
PHIL 421 – Ethical Theories ~ Varden
This course will explore the distinction between justice and virtue in four classical ethical theories. We start with Aristotle’s conception of the distinction in the Nicomachean Ethics as well as in his Politics. We will then turn to modern moral theories. First we will look at Immanuel Kant’s accounts of virtue and of justice in The Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals and in The Metaphysics of Morals, and second to John Stuart Mill’s treatment of the issue in On Utilitarianism and On Liberty. We end the course by looking at a more contemporary existentialist view of justice and virtue in Simone de Beauvoir’s The Second Sex.
PHIL 422 – Recent Developments in Ethics ~ Ben Moshe
We will examine two fundamental questions of meta-ethics and practical reason, namely the theoretical question of what makes moral judgments correct and incorrect and the practical question of why be moral. We will commence the course with a brief historical survey of ancient and modern positions regarding the status of value and the nature of practical reason. We will then proceed to discuss some early meta-ethical positions of the 20thcentury such as Moore’s "open question" argument, Stevenson’s emotivism, and Mackie’s error theory. We will continue by studying various contemporary realist and anti-realist positions about value as well as internalist and externalist positions about practical reasons.We will conclude the course with a detailed examination of the relations between normativity and agency (especially Korsgaard's project of self-constitution).
PHIL 424 - Philosophy of Religion ~ Weaver
Arguing about gods: This course aims to guide students through a critical evaluation of contemporary arguments for atheism and arguments for both monotheistic and non-monotheistic deities, discussions of the coherence of theism, and various replies to arguments for the existence of deities.
PHIL 426 - Metaphysics ~ Saenz
Investigation of various metaphysical issues concerning, for example, abstract objects, existence, material objects, modality, personal identity, properties, and time.
PHIL 429 - Value Theory ~ Sussman
This course will consider what is is for something to be good. Is there anything interesting that all good things have in common, such as a special natural or non-natural property, or is talk of goodness nothing more than an expression of desire, approval, or preference? Must all good be good for somebody or something? Is anything objectively good, or are all goods relative to a person or a community? Must agents see their own ends as good, or is the good something we might coherently reject or rebel against? We will be particularly concerned with the nature of moral goods, and how they might be related to other kinds of goods we recognize. Can all goods be rationally compared, and do pleasure or happiness have a special role in such reflections? How far can we partake in non-moral goods without ourselves being morally good? Can something be truly beautiful or pleasant if it is also wicked?
PHIL 435 - Social Philosophy ~ Savonius-Wroth
What are the characteristics of a genuinely civilized, enlightened society? Can we hope to create it? Do we have good recipes for wholesale social improvement, or would a civilized society be, not a system created by social engineers, but simply an aggregation of civilized individuals? Does our hope for a more enlightened society lie in "progress" and "development", or have we reached the point where "development" has become degeneration? Does enlightenment entail, not a progressive movement in a forward direction, but rather a return to such neglected riches of our intellectual heritage as "liberty, equality, fraternity"? This course is concerned with two strongly contrasting ways of thinking about enlightenment and a genuinely civilized society. The first way has become hegemonic. Current orthodoxy, especially in Anglophone social philosophy, invites us to think of the ideal society and the freedom of its individual citizens in liberal terms inherited from the early-modern works of Thomas Hobbes and Bernard Mandeville. However, we have also inherited a rival republican way of thinking, originally classical Greek and Roman, but developed in the early-modern works of John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau. This course begins with a survey of the classical arguments of Aristotle and Cicero. Then we trace the early-modern evolution of the rival enlightenments of Hobbes and Mandeville, and of Locke and Rousseau. We conclude by assessing the relative merits of thinking about social improvement in these rival ways. Students are expected to obtain hard (paper) copies of the following works, available for purchase in the Illini Union Bookstore: Hobbes, Leviathan, ed. Richard Tuck (Cambridge); Locke, Two Treatises of Government, ed. Peter Laslett (Cambridge); Mandeville, The Fable of the Bees and Other Writings, ed. E.J. Hundert (Indianapolis); and Rousseau, The Discourses and Other Early Political Writings, ed. and trans. Victor Gourevitch (Cambridge).
PHIL 436 - Ethics, Law and the Environment ~ Hurd
In this course, we will explore the ways in which both personal life choices and the legal apparatus of a democratic economy contribute to the perils of our planet, and we will explore possible means of reversing environmental trends that are likely to prove catastrophic if allowed to continue. We will draw upon leading theories of justice and schools of moral thought in order to explore the obligations that we owe to one another, to those in countries around the globe, and to the millions of other species with whom we share the shrinking resources of our planet. And we will engage questions about how lawyers, legislators and policy-makers might translate those lessons into law. Industrial food production, climate-changing energy production, land use and urban development, deforestation, toxic/inorganic waste disposal, and the extinction of both species and indigenous cultures will constitute concerns of the course. But at every turn we will inquire into innovative means of achieving sustainable practices—from greening the energy sector to developing closed loop agricultural systems to reconceiving our urban spaces and practices. Throughout our discussions we will ask the hard philosophical questions raised by these very practical and very immediate issues. What is the value of the natural world? Are we entitled to Nature’s riches, or do we have obligations of stewardship that require conservation? What is the moral status of ecosystems, species, and individual plants and animals? How do we properly allocate scarce resources and who should bear the burden for past excesses that have caused environmental degradation and threaten future shortages?
In addition to discussing excerpts from books and articles written by legal scholars, economists, philosophers, scientists, urban planners, and environmental journalists, we will have opportunities for more “active learning.” We will watch documentaries that will take us to places that we cannot go in person. We will take field trips to local sites that make salient questions about the sustainability of our daily practices. And we will learn from award-winning guest lecturers who will bring their expertise to bear on questions raised by course materials.
Students will be expected to write three short 1000-word “opinion pieces” (each worth 20% of their grade) during the course of the semester that are analytically crisp and draw on the materials and themes of the course. Students will also be asked to do very short in-class written assignments and projects as the semester goes along that draw on their readings and on in-class documentary films (cumulatively worth 20% of their grade). And the course will end with a short final examination that surveys the major themes of the course (worth 20% of their grade). Attendance and participation will be required, and extra credit will be awarded to those whose class contributions reflect consistent mastery of, and thoughtful reflections about, the course readings.
PHIL 439 - Philosophy of Mathematics ~ Gilbert
We shall discuss some basic issues in the foundations and philosophy of mathematics. The basic philosophical issues concern the nature of mathematical truth and the possibility and conditions of mathematical knowledge. Among the questions to be considered are the following: are the theorems of pure mathematics objectively true or false, independently of the mental? If so, what makes them true or false? In particular, are there specifically “mathematical” objects and, if so, how can we know about them? Are there properly basic concepts in mathematics – concepts from which all other mathematical notions can somehow be derived – and, if so, what are they? In particular, does a theory unfolding the concept of a set or class provide a satisfactory foundation for mathematics? Are there limits to our mathematical knowledge? Finally, we will join an ongoing discussion sparked by the logician Kurt Gödel, who famously claimed “Either mathematics is too big for the human mind, or the human mind is more than a machine.”
PHIL 443 - Phenomenology ~ Newton
This course is an introduction to the twentieth century movement of European philosophy known as ‘phenomenology’. Phenomenology literally translates as the study (logos) of the way things appear (phenomena), but the phenomenologists tried to distinguish their method of investigating appearances both from empirical psychology and from the transcendental methods of traditional metaphysics. In this course, we will focus on two main themes in the writings of authors from within the phenomenological tradition. In the first half of the course, we will look at phenomenological conceptions of the self and of self-awareness. In the second half, we will study the phenomenology of action and of intention in action.
PHIL 454 - Advanced Symbolic Logic ~ Gilbert
This course is intended to provide the logical foundation necessary for understanding, and engaging with, contemporary philosophical writing. Though the approach and content will be quite formal, many of the logical systems to be considered are motivated by philosophical concerns, and these will also be discussed. In addition to standard propositional and first-order logic, we will look at, for example, intuitionistic logics, multi-valued logics, modal logics, and logics for counterfactuals, as well as extensions thereof. Prerequisite: Phil 202 or permission of the instructor.
PHIL 471 - Contemporary Philosophy of Science ~ Livengood
In this course, our focus will be on scientific method. In thinking about scientific method, we will consider three threads that run through the fabric of the philosophy of science. First, we will consider hypothesis formation, meaning, and testability. Second, we will look at induction and probability. Finally, we will look at causation and explanation. Throughout the course, we will be interested in the nature of evidence and in the relationship between evidence and theory choice.
PHIL 492 - Thesis
PHIL 501 - Seminar on the History of Philosophy ~ Ben Moshe
"Nietzsche and Freud on Mind and Morality"
The course will introduce students to central themes in Nietzsche's and Freud's psychology and philosophy. In particular, we will examine these thinkers' accounts of the mind, conscience, and agency, as well as their genealogical method and understanding of society, religion, and morality.
PHIL 511 - Freedom and the Reactive Attitudes ~ Sussman
In this seminar, we will consider the ethical consequences of determinism. Determinism is the fairly popular view that every state of the universe is determined by the prior state along with the laws of nature. If this were so, would we ever possess sufficient agency to really be blamed (let alone properly punished) for anything we do? We will pay particular attention to P.F. Strawson’s suggestion that responsibility is to be understood in terms of certain interpersonal attitudes, such as resentment, gratitude, love, and forgiveness that make sense independent of any interesting metaphysical assumptions. We will consider what this approach holds for such difficult cases as addiction, psychopathy, agent-regret and “moral luck”. Readings from Frankfurt, Strawson, Wallace, Williams, Kolnai, Darwall, Mason, Nussbaum, Watson, Bennett, Scanlon, and Wolf, et. al.
PHIL 517 - Philosophy [and Metaphysics] of Physical Science ~ Weaver
Singular deterministic causation, says orthodoxy, is an asymmetric, transitive, irreflexive, two-place relation between events. There is hardly any agreement on anything else in the literature, and there are substantial objections to orthodoxy. There is, of course, more to uncover even after accepting orthodoxy. For example, what is the place of causation in physics and the special sciences? How does causation relate to laws of nature? Is causation universal? Is it well-founded (is there a first-cause)? Does causation reduce to law-governed non-causal physical history, or is it in some sense fundamental? Beginning with substantial discussion of metaphysical methodology (particularly how metaphysics relates to fundamental inquiry in physics), PHIL 517 will explore these and related questions.
PHIL 521 - Grounding ~ Saenz
The landscape of ontology is changing. Under the Quinean conception, ontology is primarily concerned with what exists. But many are beginning to think otherwise. The key questions of ontology are not, they say, existence questions (which are often times easily answered) but grounding questions. In this class, we will examine the nature and import of grounding and other related notions (such as fundamentality, ontological dependence, and truthmaking). What is grounding? What are its relata? What principles are true of it (it is irreflexive, asymmetric, and transitive)? How does grounding relate to modality? We will also look at some disputes over what grounds what. In particular, we will look into the dispute over fundamental mereology (are wholes grounded in their parts or is it the other way around). Questions concerning fundamentality will also be investigated. What things are fundamental? Is there a fundamental level or is it instead turtles all the way down?
PHIL 530 – Writing Seminar ~
The course will serve as a workshop in which advanced graduate students develop, present, and discuss material that will ultimately be included in their dissertations. One central objective of the course is to learn the necessary skills for developing papers and dissertation chapters into articles that are suitable for submission to conference and journals. Class meetings will be structured around conference-style presentations and intensive workshopping of the presented papers.
PHIL 583 Individual Topics
PHIL 590 Directed Research
PHIL 599 Thesis Research