The 12th Armored Division was an armored division of the United States Army in World War II. It fought in the European Theater of Operations in France, Germany and Austria, between November 1944 and May 1945.
The German Army called the 12th Armored Division the "Suicide Division" for its fierce defensive actions during Operation Nordwind in France, and they were nicknamed the "Mystery Division" when they were temporarily transferred to the command of the Third Army under General George S. Patton, Jr., to cross the Rhine River.
The 12th Armored Division was one of only ten U.S. divisions (and only one of two U.S. armored divisions) during World War II that had African-American combat companies integrated into the division. One of the African American soldiers, Staff Sergeant Edward A. Carter, Jr. was awarded The Distinguished Service Cross for gallantry in combat during World War II, and was later awarded the Medal of Honor posthumously.
The 12th Armored Division was activated on 15 September 1942. Organization and initial training was at Camp Campbell, Kentucky, and continued at Camp Barkeley in Abilene, Texas, the division consisted of approximately 11,000 soldiers, and was composed of tank, field artillery, motorized infantry battalions and other support units.[a]
In early 1943 the division adopted the nickname "The Hellcats", symbolizing its toughness and readiness for combat.[b]
While at Camp Barkeley, the 44th Tank Battalion was sent to the Pacific Theater of Operations on a special mission and later distinguished itself as the first unit to enter Manila, the 44th was replaced by the 714th Tank Battalion.
Walt Disney himself designed a logo for the 714th Tank Battalion.
Origin of Combat Units
The 12th was originally organized as a heavy armored division with two armored regiments, the 43rd and 44th, and one armored infantry regiment, the 56th Armored Infantry Regiment; in 1943, it was reorganized from a heavy division to a light division as part of a general streamlining of all armored divisions, except the 2nd Armored Division and the 3rd Armored Division.
The original 43rd and 44th Armored Regiments assigned to the 12th AD were re-designated to become the 23rd, 43rd, 44th, 714th and 779th Tank Battalions (TB) during the reorganization the 12th Armored Division underwent while at the Tennessee Maneuver Area in Watertown, Tennessee, in November 1943. The 714th TB was sent to Fort Jackson, SC and the 779th TB went to Fort Knox, KY as separate independent tank battalions, the 44th Tank Battalion was detached from the 12th AD and sent to the Pacific Theater of Operations, where it distinguished itself as the first tank battalion to enter the city of Manila and liberated American and Allied civilian prisoners interred in the Santo Tomas Internment Camp. It was replaced by the 714th TB which rejoined the 12th AD in November 1943, the 779th TB was sent to the Philippines late in the war in 1945 but did not see combat action.
Armored Infantry Battalions
The 56th Armored Infantry Regiment (AIR) traced its historical origin back to the 17th Infantry Regiment of Maj. Gen. George Sykes' 2nd Division of the 5th Army Corps, of the Army of the Potomac during the American Civil War. During World War I, soldiers from the reconstituted 17th Infantry Regiment were used to form the 56th Infantry Regiment on 15 May 1917, which was involved in the battle around Metz in Alsace-Lorraine. Ironically, when reconstituted as the 56th Armored Infantry Battalion during World War II, they were back in Alsace-Lorraine, fighting with the 12th Armored Division to liberate the same region of France from Nazi occupation in 1944-1945, on 7 July 1942, the unit was reconstituted as the 56th Armored Infantry Regiment and assigned to the 12th Armored Division, which was activated as a division at Camp Campbell, KY on 15 September 1942. On 11 November 1943 while at Watertown, Tennessee, the 12th Armored Division was reorganized and the 56th Armored Infantry Regiment was reorganized to form the 17th, 56th and 66th Armored Infantry Battalions (AIB), the 1st Battalion of the 56th AIR became the 66th AIB and the 2nd Battalion of the 56th AIR became the 17th AIB of the 12th Armored Division. The 3rd Battalion of the 56th AIR became the 56th AIB. Companies G, H and I of the 56th AIR became Companies A, B and C of the 56th AIB.[c]
World War II
After completing training the division left Abilene and departed from Camp Shanks, New York, for the European Theater of Operations on 20 September 1944, it landed at Liverpool, England on 2 October 1944. While awaiting replacement armor which had been borrowed by the U.S. Third Army, the 12th was sent to Tidworth Barracks in Wiltshire, UK, it crossed the English Channel from Southampton, arrived at Le Havre, France, on 11 November 1944 and then traveled up the Seine River to Rouen to join the Seventh Army under Lieutenant General Alexander Patch. Advance elements met the enemy near Weisslingen in Alsace on 5 December, and the entire division moved against the Maginot Line fortifications two days later.
In its advance, Rohrbach-lès-Bitche and towns surrounding Bettviller were liberated by 12 December 1944, and Utweiler, Germany was seized on 21 December. After a short period of rehabilitation and maintenance, the 12th rolled against the Rhine bridgehead at Herrlisheim that the Germans had established as part of their Operation Nordwind offensive. In order to seal the Battle of the Bulge, units of the Seventh Army were diverted north to assist the Third Army in capturing Bastogne. Due to this, the remainder of the Seventh Army, including the 12th Armored Division, was stretched thin holding a 126 miles (203 km) long front line with only eight divisions.
German defenders repulsed two division attacks in the most violent fighting in the history of the division, during 8 to 10 January and 16 to 17 January 1945, the division's attacks at Herrlisheim failed to use combined-arms tactics and were defeated in detail, resulting in two tank and two armored infantry battalions taking heavy losses. Poor tactics were compounded by terrain that was almost tabletop-flat, offering the German defenders excellent fields of fire. However, enemy counterattacks failed also, in part because of the firm leadership of the commander of Combat Command B, Colonel Charles Bromley, who declared his headquarters expendable and ordered all personnel in the headquarters to prepare a hasty defense.[d]
The division was subsequently relieved by the U.S. 36th Infantry Division. The 12th Armored Division suffered over 1,700 battle casualties during the fighting in and around Herrlisheim, as a consequence, when African-American soldiers who were in non-combat positions were able to volunteer to become combat troops, Major General Roderick R. Allen was one of only ten division commanders who allowed them to join the combat ranks.
After recovering from the bruising experience at Herrlisheim, the 12th went over to the offensive and attacked south from Colmar, after being assigned to the French First Army under General Jean de Lattre de Tassigny; in a lightning drive, the 12th effected junction with French forces at Rouffach, on 5 February, sealing the Colmar Pocket and ending German resistance in the Vosges Mountains. Except for elements acting as a protective screen, the division withdrew to the St. Avold area for rest and rehabilitation. The division was attached to the Third Army under General George S. Patton, Jr., on 17 March 1945 through its crossing of the Rhine on 28 March. The soldiers were ordered to remove their identifying unit insignias and vehicle markings were painted over, disguising the fact that Patton had an additional tank division under his command, thus the 12th was given the nickname the "Mystery Division". The attack resumed on 18 March 1945.
In a quick drive to the Rhine, Ludwigshafen fell on 21 March, and two other important river cities, Speyer and Germersheim, were secured on 24 March, clearing the Saar Palatinate. Maintaining the rapid pace, the 12th crossed the Rhine River at Worms on 28 March over pontoon bridges, advanced toward Würzburg, and captured that city along with elements of the famed 42nd Infantry Division (United States). After assisting in the seizure of Schweinfurt, the division continued toward Nuremberg on 13 April, taking Neustadt, then shifted south toward Munich on 17 April. Elements of the 12th raced from Dinkelsbühl to the Danube, where they found the bridge at Lauingen had been blown. Moving quickly they captured the bridge at Dillingen intact before demolition men could destroy it, this bridge provided a vital artery for Allied troops flooding into southern Bavaria.
The division spearheaded the Seventh Army drive, securing Landsberg, on 27 April and clearing the area between the Ammer and Würm Lakes by 30 April. The 12th Armored Division is recognized as a liberating unit  of the Landsberg concentration camps near the Landsberg Prison, sub-camps of Dachau concentration camp on 27 April 1945. On 29 April 1945, the 12th AD liberated Oflag VII-A Murnau, a German Army POW camp for Polish Army officers interred north of the Bavarian town of Murnau am Staffelsee during World War II. [e]
Elements crossed the Inn River and the Austrian border at Kufstein on 3 May, the 12th Armored Division was relieved by the 36th Infantry Division on 4 May. On 5 May, Lieutenant (later Captain) John C. Lee, Jr., Co. B, 23rd Tank Battalion, organized the rescue of VIP French prisoners from an Alpine castle in Bavaria during the Battle for Castle Itter. Under Lee's command were members of the German Wehrmacht, who combined forces with 2 tanks from the 12th to fight the SS Commander and soldiers guarding the prisoners, for leading the successful rescue of these prisoners, Lee was promoted to Captain and awarded the Distinguished Service Cross.
The 12th Armored Division engaged in security duty around Ulm until 22 November 1945, when it left Marseille, France, for home, some members of the 12th attended the US Army University, in either Biarritz, France or Shrivenham, England during this time.
It was deactivated on 3 December 1945, and on 17 December 1945, its battle flags were turned in at Camp Kilmer, New Jersey.
During its deployment the 12th Armored Division captured 72,243 enemy prisoners of war, among them were Adolf Eichmann and Wernher von Braun.
Nearly 8,500 Allied POWs, including 1,500 Americans, and an additional 20,000 non-military prisoners, were liberated by the 12th AD.
Total 12th Armored Division complement: 10,937 at end of 1944; 17,000 assigned to the division between activation and deactivation
- Total battle casualties: 3,527
- Killed in action: 616
- Wounded in action: 2,416
- Missing in action: 17
- Prisoner of war: 478
Order of battle
- Combat Command A (CCA)
- Combat Command B (CCB)
- Reserve Command (CCR)
- 23d Tank Battalion
- 43d Tank Battalion
- 714th Tank Battalion
- 17th Armored Infantry Battalion
- 56th Armored Infantry Battalion
- 66th Armored Infantry Battalion
- 92d Cavalry Reconnaissance Squadron (Mechanized)
- 119th Armored Engineer Battalion
- 152d Armored Signal Company
- 493d Armored Field Artillery Battalion
- 494th Armored Field Artillery Battalion
- 495th Armored Field Artillery Battalion
- 82d Armored Medical Battalion
- 134th Ordnance Maintenance Battalion
- Military Police Platoon
- Divisional Band
- Campaigns: Rhineland, Ardennes-Alsace, Central Europe.
- Days of combat: 102
- Distinguished Unit Citations: 1 - 92nd Cavalry Reconnaissance Squadron, Mechanized
- Meritorious Service Unit Plaques: 3, to the 134th Ord. Maint. Bn. (with a star in addition); 82d Armored Medical Battalion; and 152d Armored Signal Company
- Division authorized by France to incorporate Arms of the City of Colmar in its division insignia for action in liberating the city.
Assignments in the European Theater of Operations
- 13 November 1944: Ninth Army, Twelfth Army Group
- 5 December 1944: XV Corps, Seventh Army, Sixth Army Group.
- 27 December 1944: XXI Corps.
- 30 December 1944: Seventh Army, 6th Army Group.
- 3 January 1945: XV Corps.
- 6 January 1945: VI Corps.
- 3 February 1945: XXI Corps.
- 11 February 1945: XV Corps.
- 28 February 1945: XXI Corps.
- 17 March 1945: Seventh Army, 6th Army Group, but attached to the XX Corps, Third Army, Twelfth Army Group.
- 24 March 1945: XXI Corps, Seventh Army, 6th Army Group.
- 26 March 1945: XV Corps.
- 31 March 1945: XXI Corps.
- 4 May 1945: Seventh Army, 6th Army Group.
Assignments of the 12th AD to Higher Commands
Date Assigned to Corps Assigned to Army Attached to Army Assigned to Army Group Attached to Army Group
- 07.10.1944 UK Base ETOUSA
- 13.11.1944 Ninth Army 12th Army Group
- 05.12.1944 XV Operations Seventh Army 6th Army Group
- 27.12.1944 XXI Operations Seventh Army 6th Army Group
- 30.12.1944 Seventh Army 6th Army Group
- 03.01.1945 XV Corps Seventh Army 6th Army Group
- 06.01.1945 VI Corps Seventh Army 6th Army Group
- 03.02.1945 XXI Corps Seventh Army 6th Army Group
- 11.02.1945 XV Corps Seventh Army 6th Army Group
- 28.02.1945 XXI Corps Seventh Army 6th Army Group
- 17.03.1945 XX Operations Third Army,6th Army Gp 12th Army Group
- 24.03.1945 XXI Corps Seventh Army 6th Army Group
- 26.03.1945 XV Corps Seventh Army 6th Army Group
- 31.03.1945 XXI Corps Seventh Army 6th Army Group
- 04.05.1945 Seventh Army 6th Army Group
Detachments of units of the 12th Armored Division to other Commands
|Unit||Attached to||From date (dd.mm.yyyy)||To date (dd.mm.yyyy)|
|92nd Cavalry Reconnaissance Squadron||Normandy Base Section||18.11.1944||30.11.1944|
|119th Engineer Battalion, C Company||Normandy Base Section||18.11.1944||30.11.1944|
|493rd Armored FA Battalion, C Battery||Normandy Base Section||18.11.1944||30.11.1944|
|493rd Armored FA Battalion||44th Infantry Division||05.12.1944||07.12.1944|
|494th Armored FA Battalion||44th Infantry Division||05.12.1944||07.12.1944|
|495th Armored FA Battalion||100th Infantry Division||05.12.1944||07.12.1944|
|43rd Tank Battalion, A Company||103rd Infantry Division||05.12.1944||07.01.1945|
|493rd Armored FA Battalion||106th Cavalry Group||23.12.1944||02.01.1945|
|495th Armored FA Battalion||103rd Infantry Division||26.12.1944||02.01.1945|
|494th Armored FA Battalion||44th Infantry Division||26.12.1944||06.01.1945|
|23rd Tank Battalion, A Company||100th Infantry Division||01.01.1945||07.01.1945|
|495th Armored FA Battalion||100th Infantry Division||02.01.1945||06.01.1945|
|493rd Armored FA Battalion||44th Infantry Division||02.01.1945||06.01.1945|
|493rd Armored FA Battalion||79th Infantry Division||07.01.1945||14.01.1945|
|CC B||79th Infantry Division||07.01.1945||15.01.1945|
|495th Armored FA Battalion||3rd Algerian Infantry Division||15.01.1945||16.01.1945|
|49th Armored FA Battalion||36th Infantry Division||20.01.1945||23.01.1945|
|493rd Armored FA Battalion||36th Infantry Division||20.01.1945||23.01.1945|
|494th Armored FA Battalion||36th Infantry Division||21.01.1945||23.01.1945|
|493rd Armored FA Battalion||3rd Algerian Infantry Division||23.01.1945||02.02.1945|
|494th Armored FA Battalion||3rd Algerian Infantry Division||24.01.1945||02.02.1945|
|495th Armored FA Battalion||3rd Algerian Infantry Division||24.01.1945||02.02.1945|
|493rd Armored FA Battalion||117th Cavalry Reconnaissance Squadron||02.02.1945||[f]|
|494th Armored FA Battalion||28th Infantry Division||04.02.1945||09.02.1945|
|495th Armored FA Battalion||28th Infantry Division||07.02.1945||10.02.1945|
|494th Armored FA Battalion||70th Infantry Division||10.02.1945||13.02.1945|
|493rd Armored FA Battalion||44th Infantry Division||10.02.1945||16.02.1945|
|495th Armored FA Battalion||70th Infantry Division||11.02.1945||12.02.1945|
|714th Tank Battalion||70th Infantry Division||12.02.1945||17.02.1945|
|495th Armored FA Battalion||44th Infantry Division||13.02.1945||16.02.1945|
|494th Armored FA Battalion||44th Infantry Division||14.02.1945||16.02.1945|
|494th Armored FA Battalion||70th Infantry Division||17.02.1945||09.03.1945|
|495th Armored FA Battalion||70th Infantry Division||17.02.1945||9.03.1945|
|CC A||70th Infantry Division||02.03.1945||08.03.1945|
|CC R||101st Cavalry Group||02.03.1945||08.03.1945|
|43rd Tank Battalion, C Company||63rd Infantry Division||09.03.1945||14.03.1945|
|493rd Armored FA Battalion||70th Infantry Division||13.03.1945||17.03.1945|
|494th Armored FA Battalion||70th Infantry Division||13.03.1945||17.03.1945|
|495th Armored FA Battalion||70th Infantry Division||13.03.1945||17.03.1945|
|92nd Cavalry Reconnaissance Squadron||63rd Infantry Division||5.03.1945||16.03.1945|
|CC A||94th Infantry Division||22.03.1945||22.03.1945|
|CC A||42nd Infantry Division||07.04.1945||13.04.1945|
Attachments (Units officially attached to the 12th Armored Division) 
- 572nd Anti-aircraft Artillery (AAA) AW (automatic weapons) Battalion (SP) (self-propelled) 04.12.1944-18.05.1945
- CC V, 2nd French Armored Division 30.04.1945-04.05.1945
- 101st Cavalry Group 08.04.1945-04.05.1945
- 42nd Reconnaissance Troop, 42nd Infantry Division 13.04.1945-14.04.1945
- 99th Chemical Mortar Battalion, A Company, 07.03.1945-08.03.1945
- 206th Engineer Combat Battalion 18.03.1945-20.03.1945
- 256th Engineer Combat Battalion 14.04.1945-21.04.1945
- 290th Engineer Combat Battalion 21.04.1945-04.05.1945
- 204th Field Artillery Group 18.03.1945-22.03.1945
- 342nd Field Artillery Battalion 28.03.1945-04.05.1945
- 933rd Field Artillery Battalion (155mm Howitzer) 31.03.1945-19.04.1945
- 36th Field Artillery Group, Headquarters 01.04.1945-19.04.1945
- 937th Field Artillery Battalion (155mm Howitzer) 01.04.1945-04.05.1945
- 935th Field Artillery Battalion (4.5 inch Gun) 11.04.1945-19.04.1945
- 977th Field Artillery Battalion, A Batt (155mm Gun) 24.04.1945-25.04.1945
- 1st & 2nd Bn, 22nd Infantry Reg, 4th Infantry Division 02.04.1945-03.04.1945
- 3rd Bn, 222nd Infantry Reg, 42nd Infantry Division 02.04.1945-08.04.1945
- 2nd Bn, 242nd Infantry Reg, 42nd Infantry Division 05.04.1945-07.04.1945
- G Co, 242nd Infantry Reg, 42nd Infantry Division 10.04.1945-12.04.1945
- 3rd Bn, 242nd Infantry Reg, 42nd Infantry Division 12.04.1945-14.04.1945
- 15th CT, 3rd Infantry Division 24.04.1945-25.04.1945
- 827th Tank Destroyer Battalion 19.12.1944-13.02.1945
Memorials Recognizing the 12th Armored Division
- 12th Armored Division Fort Campbell Memorial, Fort Campbell, Kentucky
- 12th Armored Division Camp Barkeley Memorial, Abilene, Texas
- 12th Armored Division Memorial Museum, Abilene, Texas
- All Veterans Memorial, 12th AD Plaque, Emporia, Kansas
- Armored Park Memorial,Fort Knox, Kentucky 
- Armed Forces Monument, Arlington, Virginia
- Don F. Pratt Memorial Museum, Fort Campbell, KY
- United States Holocaust Museum, Washington, DC
- 50th Anniversary of World War II Memorial, Herrlisheim, France (12th AD is the only Allied Military Unit recognized on the Monument)
- Memorial to Liberation of France and Victory in World War II, Colmar, France
- Place de Col. Meigs plaque, Rohrbach, France
- US Memorial on Hill 351 (Mont de Sigolsheim), Sigolsheim, France
Monument at the top of Mont de Sigolsheim honors the American soldiers who fought for the liberation of Alsace at the site of the Battle of Sigolsheim in Dec. 1944.
In Appreciation (by the people of) Alsace to the 1st French Army of the Rhine and Danube and their American Comrades (who) liberated Alsace 1944-1945, the U.S. 21st Army Corps, U.S. 12th Armored Division, the U.S. 3rd, 28th, 75th, 36th, 45th, 63rd, 103rd Infantry Divisions.
The insignias of the U.S. Divisions that fought in Alsace are emblazoned on the Sigolsheim monument: the U.S. 21st Army Corps, U.S. 12th Armored Division (bottom row, 2nd from left), the U.S. 3rd, 28th, 75th, 36th, 45th, 63rd, 103rd Infantry Divisions.
Place Colonel Meigs is located in Rohrbach, France near where Lt. Col. Montgomery C. Meigs died while commanding the 23rd Tank Bn, 12th AD, he was posthumously awarded the Silver Star.
50th Anniversary of World War II Memorial, Herrlisheim, France
Plaque on the 50th Anniversary of World War II Memorial, Herrlisheim, France
12th Armored Division Association
The 12th Armored Division Association was founded on 15 September 1945 at Heidenheim, Germany, on the occasion of the third anniversary of the division's activation.
The Hellcat News (newspaper)
The Hellcat News, the newspaper of the 12th Armored Division, was first published in 1942 as an information sheet. Initial publication was part of the public relations duties of the Special Services unit of the 12th Armored Division while the division trained at Camp (later Fort) Campbell, Kentucky; in 1943, after the division was transferred to Camp Barkeley in Abilene, Texas, the division commander, Major General Carlos Brewer, assigned three men to Special Services to continue the newspaper. The first official issue of the newspaper was published at Camp Campbell, Kentucky, although the byline reads "Somewhere in Tennessee", this was because Camp Campbell was in the Tennessee Maneuver Area located on the Kentucky-Tennessee border between Hopkinsville, Kentucky, and Clarksville, Tennessee. Due to its close proximity to Clarksville, Tennessee, the War Department on 6 March 1942, designated Tennessee as the official address of the new camp, this caused a great deal of confusion, since the Headquarters was in Tennessee and the post office was in Kentucky. After many months of mail delivery problems, Colonel Guy W. Chipman requested that the address be changed to Camp Campbell, Kentucky, the U.S. War Department officially changed the address on 23 September 1942.
The newspaper continued to be published by the division Special Services after transfer of the division to Camp Barkeley in Abilene, Texas, from February 1944 through the final issue published in the U.S during the war on 10 August 1944 (Vol. 2, No. 26), when the entire division was shipped to Europe to join the 7th Army in France. Publication resumed with Volume 3, Issue 1 on 18 May 1945, in Heidenheim, Germany, following cessation of combat operations in the ETO, the Special Services of the division published the first issues in Europe on a weekly basis when conditions permitted, until the deactivation of the division in 1946. The Hellcat News is one of two U.S. military newspapers that has been continuously published since World War 2, the other being the older "Stars and "Stripes", which began publication on 9 November 1861 in Bloomfield, Missouri. The "Hellcat News" is the oldest U.S. Armed Forces divisional newspaper still being published since World War 2.
Wartime publications contained division news stories, cartoons and photographs, the later editions of the 12th Armored Association contain information about former members of the division, organizational news including information about the yearly reunion, original cartoons, and photographs both from the war years and afterwards. A series relating the history of the division is also recounted in the newspaper; in addition, the president of the association and the secretary included messages of interest in most issues. These messages contain information about the division's Medal of Honor recipient, Staff Sergeant Edward A. Carter, Jr. The Hellcat News is published by the 12th Armored Division Association. Archived copies of the Hellcat News from the first issue in 1943 through 2012 are available online through the West Texas Digital Archive.
12th Armored Division Memorial Museum
In October 2001 the 12th Armored Division Memorial Museum opened its doors to the public in Abilene, Texas, with the stated mission to serve as a display and teaching museum for the study of World War II and its impact on the American people. "The Twelfth Armored Division Memorial Museum is located in Abilene, Texas, near (9 miles south of) the site of the former Camp Barkeley where the Division trained prior to being sent overseas into the European Theater of Operations. The Museum holds collections of the 12th Armored Division, World War II archives, memorabilia, and oral histories, along with selected equipment and material loaned or donated by others, the education plan focuses on expanding academic access to World War II historical materials, veterans, and their families; preserving the history of the 12th Armored Division for study, research, and investigations by future generations; providing training in public history professions, developing new education programs for students and establishing a technology bridge between the 12th Armored Division Historical Collection and the public."
As part of an ongoing venture to become a larger part of the West Texas community and the greater Abilene area, 12th Armored Division Memorial Museum has partnered with the West Texas Digital Archives, providing access to copies of the "Hellcat News" from first edition to 2012.
- ^ abcd""Speed is the Password: The Story of the 12th Armored Division", Stars and Stripes G.I. Series, Paris: printed by Desfosses-Neogravure". Lonesentry.com. 1945. Retrieved 23 April 2015.
- ^ ab"Mystery Division at Rhine: Patton's Forces Chasing Germans on Road Back". Joseph Driscoll, New York Herald-Tribune, 22 March 1945, archived at the 12th Armored Memorial Museum website, accessed 4-20-2015. Archived from the original on 4 February 2015.
- ^ ab"African American Platoons in World War II". History Net: Where History Comes Alive - World & US History Online.
- ^John C. Ferguson, Hellcats: The 12th Armored Division in World War II (Military History of Texas Series). State House Press (31 August 2004)
- ^"12th Armored Division". unithistories.com. Archived from the original on 30 March 2015. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
- ^"Hellcat News--12th Armored Division Newsletter". alc.org. Archived from the original on 4 February 2015.
- ^James M. Myers. "Camp Barkeley". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
- ^"12th Armored Division - Timeline". 12tharmoredmuseum.com. 1 November 1943. Retrieved 23 April 2015.
- ^"12th Armored Division, "The Hellcats"". patriotfiles.com.
- ^"Walt Disney Draws, Copyrights Critter for 714th". The Hellcat News. West Texas Digital Archives. 2
- ^Division complement at the end of 1944 was 10.937; a total of over 17,000 soldiers had been assigned to the 12th AD between 1942 and deactivation in 1946, including the 44th Armored Bn transferred to the Pacific Theater of Operations, casualties and replacement troops who saw service
- ^"In early 1943, Private Francis Beckman (493rd Armored Field Artillery Battery C) won a division contest to come up with a nickname, earning a three-day weekend pass."
- ^Since all of the Armored Infantry Battalions of the 12th Armored Division, the 56th, 66th and 17th Armored Infantry Battalions, trace their origins to the 56th Infantry Regiment during WW I and further, back to the 17th Infantry Regiment during the American Civil War, the heraldic shields of all three battalions display elements of their rich history. The origins from the 56th Infantry Regiment from WW I is represented by the crest of the City of Metz and the white cross pattée on a blue background seen in the battalion crests represents the 2nd Division of Gen. Sykes' V Corps to which the 17th Infantry Regiment belonged during the Civil War, the cross in the canton is surrounded by an embattled border (top of a wall), representing the 17th Infantry Regiment fighting at Fredericksburg during the Civil War when it suffered heavy casualties pinned down behind a wall at Marye's Heights. See: 56th Infantry Regiment (United States)#Coat of Arms of the 56th Infantry Regiment and derivative Armored Infantry Battalions
- ^"[On 19 Jan 1945, at] about 5 p.m., 400 German infantrymen supported by 17 tanks almost succeeded in attacking across the Zorn from Landgraben River. North of Herrlisheim, the Germans pushed across the Zorn and almost overran CCB's command post in Rohrwiller, as clerks and other personnel started to panic and prepared to evacuate the area, Colonel Bromley shouted out: "Stop this goddamn panic. We're not retreating anywhere. We're defending this command post; we're holding this line. We're soldiers; we have weapons; we're expendable."
- ^"Oflag VIIA was liberated by Troop B, 116th Cavalry Reconnaissance Squadron (MECZ), Combat Command A of the 12th Armored Division, XXI Corps of the American 7th Army, on 29 April 1945. According to 12 Armored Division records (Daily Journal) the camp was liberated at 16:55 in the afternoon, the 116th was the second squadron of the 101st Cavalry Group. Task Force 2 contained Co. A and/or B 66th Armoured (sic) Infantry, plus Co. C of the 43rd Tank Battalion and a platoon of light tanks from Co. D of the 43rd Tank Battalion."
- ^Date missing from unit records
What are the challenges that teachers have today in conveying practical information about the American political system to students? Well, I think there are many. The modern political arena is an increasingly complex one. There are two major parties that have been around in some form for many years but even they have trouble adjusting to contemporary issues that challenge their ideological center. More and more often they have trouble differentiating themselves. Evidence of this can be seen in the onslaught of third parties like the Reform party of the early 90s that had a dramatic effect on the outcome of the presidential elections and the current Green party that was blamed for "stealing" votes from the far left.
There is also a drastic flux of information in and out of the American consciousness that happens so fast we barely have time to notice. With so many news outlets competing for the newest, hottest story, what we think about as present can be very distorted. An issue or story that is headline news one day is gone and forgotten the next. Old news is merely weeks old.
The numbers of stakeholders in policy decisions have multiplied, as the world has become a more interconnected place. Now American legislation, more than ever, may either have an international intent or prime motive. Indeed, a very real part of debate in America has been about whether or not to base our laws on foreign models, for instance, following the lead of Europe in outlawing capital punishment. Lobbyist organizations like the American Israel Political Action Committee (AIPAC) often referred to as one of the most powerful in Washington, lie like a shadow of the world across the changing landscape of American lawmaking.
And so, we teachers sift through the murky waters of court decisions, blathering party pundits, talk show rhetoric, and ubiquitous news flashes to bring our students closer to some practical meaning. This unit is meant to tackle this situation. So how will it help? Let me first say that I teach Advanced Placement American Government and Politics and have designed this unit to fit with the curriculum requirements for this course as outlined in the Advanced Placement College Board program. The program insists that teachers and students study several aspects of American government and politics including units on the role of major media in politics, political ideologies in the United States, and concepts of political socialization, which I will discuss at greater length later in the unit. This unit is meant to weave together parts of each of these. It will not necessarily be a comprehensive study of each, but a combination of important elements from each that can help prepare students to engage pertinent issues within the parameters of course requirements and help penetrate the political world that surrounds them.
Because the problems I have indicated are so big, I have devised this unit to employ film analysis as a way for students to come to grip with problems in their political culture. Let's face it; our students are often the prime targets of the entertainment industry and whether the objective is economic, cultural or political, it is the responsibility of teachers to help them to be informed consumers. Since film is a major part of the cultural malaise I described earlier, it seems an appropriate juncture to meet the place my students occupy. But I should also say that later in the unit I am going to offer some alternative or adjunct assignments that might appeal to students, including using popular music, poetry, television, and visual art for the same purposes. But I digress. . .on to the unit.
The first point is the easiest to relay to students, and that is to recognize that films have some ideological motive. Regardless of the depth of political reach, each film makes a point that can be linked in some substantial way to political thought or theory. It is of course no secret that media exert a very powerful cultural influence. It is the sole reason for the advertisement industry. And so it is inarguable that parts of that influence can have political ramifications.
Next, it will be crucial to have students assess the impact that films have had on shaping their own political views. I will not approach this as if my students lack discretion. Instead, I will ask them to do some metacognitive exercises using some of their favorite films in order to determine whether or not the political beings they have become might have some relation to the films they choose to analyze. Also, I want my students to investigate why filmmakers might choose to transmit a particular ideological message. In other words, the students should first answer the question: what is the cultural text of the film or what point is a film making? They should then speculate as to the significance of the film within the political context in which it was made (Turner, 131). These will be the essential elements to the academic exercise I describe in this unit.
This Unit and My School
I teach in an arts magnet school making this unit especially relevant. The students who attend our school arrive there by way of application, followed by an audition at which time they may be entered into a lottery. Needless to say it is not easy to get into Northwest School of the Arts, Charlotte, North Carolina. The positive side of these bureaucratic hurdles is that we have a population of students quite dedicated to improving the quality of their arts endeavor. Students are exposed to all art forms in their middle school years (our school is 6-12) and unlike other programs, upperclassmen can choose an arts major in visual arts, dance, theatre, orchestra, chorus, or some combination of these. An overwhelming majority of our graduates continue their work as they enter institutions of higher learning.
It is worth noting that this unit might be especially attractive to my students who are in an educational atmosphere where they have their choice of classes like Film Studies, Drama levels I, II, and III, Musical Theatre, and Shakespeare in Film. What binds these kids together is their understanding of the persuasive nature of art. They each understand, perhaps in different ways, that a song, a dance, and a canvas can move an audience and can speak to people in a profound manner. They are driven to do, in their creative work, this very thing and have persistently, in the ten years I have been a teacher there, shown great promise when allowed to bring their arts expertise into their academic classrooms.
During the 1970s and into the 1980s the American women's movement, punctuated by the fight for an Equal Rights Amendment to the Constitution, was driven under the slogan "the personal is political." Indeed, women of the period (and beyond) were justified in suggesting that their socio-economic condition was not plainly personal but a manifestation of political attitudes and behaviors. Women's salaries were not (and are not generally) comparable to men's in similar occupations. Divorce laws favored men and so on (Farragher, 450). For the purposes of explaining this unit I would like to borrow this adage.
It might be said that much of what we encounter in daily living is political. It could get a little annoying to think about life this way but bear with me as I flesh this out. Let's say that you and a friend decide that on a Saturday afternoon you are going to meet at the YMCA for a spin class then go to a late afternoon lunch and see a movie in the early evening. The political crossroads here are endless. First, there are speed limits that may hinder your progress (if you choose, as I do, to think of them as a buttress to progress). Second, if you are working out you are probably health conscious and will choose a restaurant or something on a given menu that contributes to your continued good health. Good health is strongly linked to things such as disability and life insurance that derive from various codes tied to legislation born largely from interplay between state and federal officials and insurance corporation lobbyists. Lastly, the film that you choose will undoubtedly have an ideological edge that is unavoidable. Films are stories with plots and themes that attempt to make a point. Often times that point is of a political nature. But in a practical sense this day represents the fact that nothing that we encounter, even the most innocent of situations, can be completely devoid of political implications.
What does all this mean? The personal is political. It is unavoidable. The truth of the matter is that laws guard our lives. Those laws, rules, or regulations are created through the American political process and it is our job, since we have sovereignty, to comment on them, ask that they be changed, follow them alertly, or condemn their creators. Voters might be said to have the ultimate democratic comment when they participate in elections. But it is naiveté to think that the process is not far more involved than that. So who is making all the noise? Voters must be informed and the information is largely the responsibility of America's mass media. There is an inarguable link between the function of our federal system and the media that charges itself with giving us the tools we need to be good citizens. Indeed most Americans depend on multiple forms of media to teach them about politicians, political issues, and political happenings. For this unit I've chosen to focus on film as a key part of the media whose effects are often recognized. Specifically I want to deal with political rhetoric in various films showing how the cinema might contribute to one's ideological or political perspectives.
Film and Politics
This summer my wife and I saw the movie Spider Man 3. It was a typical computer-generated theatrical thriller with a common plot: good vs. evil. Or so it would seem. The storyline took a bit of a turn, however, as Spiderman became tempted to seek revenge against his apparent enemy and in one scene even contemplated killing him. The audience discovers with Spiderman that allowing temptation to overcome one's self is a dangerous proposition with many unpredictable outcomes. He eventually realizes the error of his thinking when the antagonist reveals himself to be a decent and heartfelt human being worthy of forgiveness, which is quickly granted. But for our purposes this film does far more than allow about an hour and a half of reality escape through fantasy.
What could the storyteller be saying? Let's answer this by looking at the film through a political lens. Pay careful attention to this next bit as I try to model for you the kind of thing you might want to describe to your students in class. It is perfectly plausible for us to link this story with the current conflict in Iraq. After the 9/11 attacks our government was anxious to find the culprits and bring them to justice. In a calamity of this kind politicians are never apt to be patient as they feel the pressure to respond to the wishes of constituents who are eager to find someone to blame. And it has been a frequent predicament in United States History from the so called "Bloody Massacre" in Boston, to the Alamo to Pearl Harbor.
So, we knew Islamic fundamentalist jihadists in the Middle East calculated the attacks, we had a "bad guy" we could toss into the fray, and an American public ready to "smoke them out of their rat holes," as President Bush put it. It was this rush to judgment and need to exact vengeance that has led us to the befuddling situation we find ourselves in today. Therefore, we could say with great validity that Spider Man 3 wants us to consider whether tolerance, patience, and forgiveness are values we ignored and by giving in to the dark temptations for revenge, we have left ourselves in a rather pitiful condition. Maybe Spiderman preaches that real heroes behave with fortitude, depth of thought, and in a calculatedly respectful way. They are not, as the theme of this film is suggesting, apoplectic, myopic and headstrong.
We could also think about this in another politically oriented manner. The debate over capital punishment has been a hot topic in recent years especially since DNA testing has revealed a number of miscues on the part of our legal system. In the film Spiderman is a celebrated character and held iconic by the community. He is the ultimate authority for good. Indeed, the one force that keeps criminals at bay. But because he blames the Sand Monster guy, who is never given a name during the film, for murdering his Uncle he contemplates killing his foe. It is a perfect setup for commenting on the death penalty. Spidey forgives and forgets and the Sand Guy, or whatever he is called, lives and learns a valuable lesson. There is even an offering in the end that Sand Guy is going to change his ways, which he has been rehabilitated and will ostensibly be a productive member of society. By the way, it is an interesting consequence to this metaphor that the enemy is a walking desert!
Now, I think it is worth asking what difference it makes if in fact our assessment of this film, or any other, is logical and meaningful. Well, in the AP course we are asked to teach about a process called political socialization, political ideologies, as well as to teach about the political effects of major media. And as was mentioned in the introduction, this is not an easy prospect given modern political complexities. This type of specific political analysis can help us do both, but first some clarification with regard to terminology.
Political socialization is the process by which people become their political selves. It is the accounting for and perhaps the accumulation of all the possible influences in people's lives that have led them to take some political path. Political scientists have theorized about this process for many years. It is through this socialization that people adopt some ideology that acts as a guide to their political opinions and activities. Among the most important of influences is a person's family which includes racial and cultural considerations, religion, the region where a family lives, the mother's and or father's occupation and educational background with of course a great deal of attention being paid to the families traditional political leanings.
For this unit, however, I want to also give credence to the role media, specifically film, might play in this development. As times have changed and children expose themselves to and are often manipulated by multiple forms of Media, it is worth asking whether or not their political opinions are potentially a byproduct of the materials they consume. It seems quite likely. So we have the makings of a unit that will supply teachers with the ability to teach students about the role film based media play in developing political ideologies for American people in a process referred to as political socialization. Now let's put them all together.
Film Analysis: Making it Work for Your Students
There are several important caveats to this procedure that we should discuss before getting into lessons and strategies. I will break these down into component parts by using boldfacing to separate ideas and begin each with an essential question. Also I want to explore film analysis with animated films and realistic ones in separate categories paying particular attention to the differences we should notice between the two types.
But I would also like to interject here a couple of points related to the following narrative. There is a wide range of films from which I could choose examples. But there are no preexisting categories of the types. So, I will essentially be instituting my own structure that you may use or redefine as you see fit. Don't be confused by this. I will discuss those kinds of films that make analysis quite easy but also those with heavy doses of symbolism that are wrapped around sometimes complicated metaphors that can make the inference I have written about so far more difficult. Keep in mind that there can be lots of variations between those I am going to describe, but for the sake of time and simplicity I will not muddy the waters with the entire gamut of alternatives.
Also, I will not promote any conspiratorial views of media and politics. This is not a unit about the supposed liberal bias in Hollywood. Nor is it an exploration into the monolithic status of media giants and their so-called attempt to control human beings through subversive marketing techniques.
Are films in fact influential?
This is a fairly objective academic exercise, but not so objective that it allows us to dismiss the significance of film in our political evolution. If we refuse to accept the politically relevant content of films and perceive the action of watching films as pure and simple entertainment, meaning that somehow we exist outside the process, then the films themselves lose much of their meaning and significance. We should not avoid the fact that our interaction with films makes them a part of us and so they must have social, cultural, and political consequences.
The point of this is not to promote the idea that some particular film or set of films is definitive in creating political ideologues, but rather that it can be a contributor to any evolving political being. Viewers connect with films often times in very meaningful ways. Therefore, young children who think, for instance, that Happy Feet is the "best movie ever," grow up with some special stake in the message. It is part of their personal culture, and as we discussed earlier, the personal is political. It is not to recommend that there is a one to one correlation between what the film says and what then the viewer believes. This is not an absolute science. But it is an undeniable fact that movies are a prevailing presence in our lives. And just as parents and friends are instrumental in shaping us, our choices of media too can powerfully spark, reinforce, or perhaps change our interests in the world.
Do all films work as political rhetoric?
The clear answer is yes. There are plenty of films that may not seem to have any abiding political qualities. For example the Jim Carey film Dumb and Dumber is, I believe, not representative of any political issue or situation in a contemporary or historical sense. Any attempt to manipulate the story line to make it correlative to political theory would seem to be far too contrived. However, as Dudley Andrew my seminar leader put it, it is much like ingesting food. No matter what we eat or drink it affects our bodies in some way. That could range from the very positive fruits and vegetables to the very negative Big Mac with a wide array of possibilities in between. So if there are any allusions to masculinity or gender roles, wealth or class identity, as there positively are in the Carey comedy, it is being "ingested" by the audience and consequently there has to be some level of mental acquiescence. But to clarify, there is a broad political spectrum across which films may be placed.
How do we differentiate between films that will work for this model?
This is perhaps the most difficult task we as teachers would encounter in using this unit. I say this because there are so many variables at play that can create problems for those who are analyzing films. The problems, however, exist on two levels. First we have to provide some categorical relationship to distinguish one group of films from another. So I have created three discernible categories, each separately triggering a particular level of political intent: Open or Editorial, Allegorical, and Entertainment. The next difficulty is when we deal with realistic and animated films.
The one clarification to be made about animation is that it forms a distinctly dissimilar sort of bond with the viewer than do realistic films. I am not a film expert but do realize that an audience approaches animated films with a completely different set of expectations. Cartoon characters have no limits and so we cannot intimately relate to the world in which they exist. The result is that we do not connect with them in the same ways we do human beings. We will never take them as seriously. They may be lovable, entertaining, and even unforgettable, but we will never be cartoons and they will never be human; so our experiences will always be poles apart.
How do we compare realistic films within the given categories?
The easiest category of politically rhetorical films is the open documentary or editorial type film. Michael Moore's Bowling for Columbine, Fahrenheit 9/11, and most recent film Sicko along with Errol Morris's Fog of War are in this category. It is in fact the intent of the filmmaker to produce an open political statement in hopes of encouraging audiences to think similarly about certain issues. In other words there is no question that these films are politically argumentative. They also, by the way, are probably not the types of films lots of students would see voluntarily and so might not be useful, but that would depend on the kinds and ages of students you teach.
Within this group are films quite overt in their message but dramatic in their text. One of the best in recent years would be Syriana starring George Clooney and Matt Damon. The film is fictional but there is no mistaking the intended message. It is a criticism of and comment on American foreign policy in the Middle East, the corruptive relationship of oil giants and the federal government, and in so being, a serious indictment of the current administration. Another of these types of films is Crash starring Sandra Bullock, Don Cheadle, and Matt Dillon. It is a racially conscious film during which several characters casually and abruptly intersect. The motive of the filmmakers is clear. They ask that the audience reflect on their own prejudices and experiences calling us to wonder if there is ever any justification in promoting or mentally cultivating racial stereotypes. In the end people from all backgrounds must think about how much effort they put into appreciating the multitude of cultures and customs that comprise modern America and how the perpetual ignorance of one another can lead to sometimes tragic misunderstandings.
A stark contrast to the revealing plot in Crash we might find in a movie like Million Dollar Baby. This is a good example of a tragic allegory. It is about a girl from the other side of the tracks who finds her calling in boxing and in being trained by the stoic Clint Eastwood. During the film their relationship flourishes, as does her talent in the ring. Unfortunately, both are interrupted when she is paralyzed after a fiendish blow from a particularly nefarious opponent. She then attempts suicide on multiple occasions but succeeds in stopping her life when her trainer pulls the proverbial plug.
There are many noteworthy issues at play in this one. An issue of feminism since a woman enters a traditionally male-dominated, violent sport. An issue of government entitlements and class struggle permeates the story. The girl's family is a stereotypical bottom-feeding group more interested in staying on welfare than moving beyond it. And of course there is the issue of euthanasia perfectly relevant to Dr. Kevorkian and the right to die movement. Then there is an intertwining and persistent theme that suggests we have somehow lost value for just being alive. The trainer afraid of complications is unwilling to take risks and, the girl wants to kill herself because she can't box and sees nothing else to live for, and her family is not remotely satisfied with anything but material goods. It is a marvelous but intricate film for students to dissect. And any of these political conclusions can work. By the way, the analysis I used for Spider Man 3 in the rationale section would also work in this category.
The entertainment film is the most ubiquitous film in our culture but probably the most complex for this unit. On the surface these films look as if they have no redeemable political qualities. Just as the daytime soap opera seems to lack anything beyond emotional attraction, there are a myriad of messages to be found. Let's try one.
Could Animal House have political content? Well, maybe the writers and directors (Harold Ramis and John Landis the most notable from that crowd) were not overly concerned with proselytizing about any political events of the late 1970s but their characterizations clearly lead us to some socio-political conclusions. There are very clear implications about social class and educational level. Women in the film are objects of men's desires not relevant for their thoughts or concerns. And there is a standard set for teenagers who head to college and the kinds of things they should do to rebel against the established authorities therein. Thomas Jefferson supported the need for rebellions saying, "The tree of liberty must be refreshed from time to time with the blood of patriots and tyrants." I think John Belushi's character Bluto would have agreed with that then smashed a beer bottle over his head. Perhaps this otherwise goofy movie is suggesting to us that it is time for a rebellion and that young adults will take the lead, rise up against their stuffy aristocratic oppressors and make a new more spontaneous America.
How do we compare animated films within the given categories?
I am going to use the popular movies Spirit, Happy Feet and Shrek. They are all animated films from the DreamWorks studios. The main differences among these animated films lies in their texts. Spirit is intended for a much younger audience, having a narrow and simple story line, Happy Feet and Shrek garner a wider group ranging from toddlers who are drawn to the silliness of the characters to adult enthusiasts who enjoy clever satire. Nevertheless, the animation satisfies all viewers in its clever form and function. The primary consideration for us is how easily our students might read the political content.
Set in post Civil War America, Spirit is about a renegade horse that leads a pack of wild horses against the force of settlers who are attempting to exploit the untamed west. During the film parallel stories are conjoined as the audience is shown that both wild horses and Native Americans are part of the resistance. They are of course resisting white settlers embodied in the movie as the United States Cavalry. In a particularly revealing clip, the apparent captain of the military crew proselytizes about the sanctity of discipline and order, conceding the recklessness of free will. It is a classic rendition of conservatism or traditionalism versus liberalism or progressivism. As the directors would have it, the heroes or winners in this war are the mavericks. The rebellious spirit is celebrated while the intruders are cast as insensitive, capitalist pigs. This is an example that would fit easily into the open/ editorial category.
The animated movie Happy Feet is a great example of an allegory. Let me quickly run down the plot. An outcast penguin leaves the comfort of his habitat to find out why the fish population has run a shortage and has left his kinsmen without proper nourishment. He is captured and put into a zoo but released when humans discover that the young penguin has the ability to dance. During this time humans also realize that the fishing industry has harmed the natural penguin habitat. It is very interesting to find the film switch to realistic video that shows people arguing about policies that bear on the question of interrupting the penguin ecosystem. Eventually, men suspend their own fishing rights and restore the climate, allowing the penguin to thrive.
Okay, so it isn't the most powerful political message but that's not the point. The story builds empathy for the main character whose life is being sabotaged by an unwitting enemy. The enemy is humankind who destroy the environment. So once the audience is sufficiently in love with the central character penguin they then have no choice but to pull against humans who are hurting him and his extended family of penguins. Isn't it possible then that young people, who are living in a political era that is becoming greatly concerned about environmental conditions, couch this experience, among others, in a way that ultimately fosters an environmentalist perspective? Why not?
The plot in Shrek is a bit more allusive to this exercise because it is advertised as sheer entertainment. The Ogre is the central character who discovers love and self-reflection in the process of rescuing the person who will eventually be his bride. The story is funny and exciting. It is a smorgasbord of allusions and puns. But for the politically minded and the culturally aware it is, allowably, also a reflection of class conflict. The rich king (an intentionally napoleonic figure) is set in opposition to the poor, ugly, crude, uneducated ogre of the swamps who eventually wins the love of the princess despite his naiveté. It is a classic tale of the disadvantaged overcoming the odds.
It is also readily applicable to our lives in that our social and educational station is very closely related to our own political influence, or at the very least, the perception we have of our own abilities to be influential. It is a common sentiment among Americans who do not vote to claim, "I can't make a difference since I represent only one vote". There is a strong identification in this movie with powerlessness and oppression and the struggle to overcome, so to speak. Shrek shows us that anything is possible. Taking his lead, we can be instruments for change.
This message may not be obvious enough to make an overpowering impression, but that is truly immaterial to the argument. When we watch Shrek we are ingesting the images, the plot, the theme, the tone and allowing it to become a part of us, melding with our own notions of the world and ourselves. Again, my interpretation should not be considered the only way to derive political content, but I do insist on the idea that films make a personal intrusion whether we are conscious of it or not.
Lessons and Strategies
I will start with an introduction to political ideologies. The most important, because they are listed in the Advanced Placement program, are:
- Conservatism- a general belief in limiting government intervention into personal or business affairs and an emphasis on traditional family values.
- Liberalism- a general belief in having strong government intervention to solve cultural, social, or economic problems.
- Libertarianism-insists on sharply limited government, individual liberty, a free market economy and absence of extensive regulatory systems.
- Socialism-an economic and political system based on public ownership of the means of production.
- Communism-an economic and government system bent toward elimination of class ranks, free markets and personal property; all matters government run and operated.
- Feminism-ideology primarily concerned with women's issues such as compensation, sexual harassment, exploitation and other civil rights.
- Environmentalism- ideology dominated by concern for protection of the environment in all policy matters (Burns, 81).
The task here is really simple. Students will either work individually or in groups (most likely in groups) first defining each, as I have done here and then move beyond the textbook to write descriptive real world applications that fit their definitions. For example they could write that Al Gore displayed his environmentalist leanings in the film An Inconvenient Truth.
At this point we will discuss their answers. One caveat - it is always necessary to, when discussing ideologies, give students contextual explanations being sure that they don't misuse the terms based on erroneous preconceptions. They may have heard the terms conservative or liberal tossed around, as they commonly are, but never considered whether they had been applied appropriately. It is possible of course for a person to be socially liberal and economically conservative. It is also possible to be a predominately liberal person but take a conservative stance on any particular issue. So I think it is a real necessity at this stage to force students to consider the terms by their definitive nature rather than in generalities.
To accomplish this goal, guide students in evaluating an example. I find it valuable to use a topic that has been popularly discussed hoping they may have formed an opinion. Although you can do this by giving students a hypothetical scenario akin to an actual one that you believe will allow them to notice their own ideological bend. I like to be very explicit with these and then see where it takes us: "What do you think about drilling for oil in the barren uninhabited areas of Alaska? Keep in mind that by developing our own oil reserves we might cheapen the cost of gas and make us less dependent on foreign sources but also that there are animal species in this area and that they are currently protected as a wildlife refuge." This exercise is useful in awakening students to the prospect that in order to find themselves in the political universe they often have to make some tough choices, evaluate their views on multiple issues, and do so with great scrutiny to draw valid conclusions.
It is also valuable to put a list of pro-con type issues on the board and ask them to choose sides as a way to determine their political propensity. Issues like abortion, the death penalty, immigration reform, continued involvement in Iraq, legalizing marijuana are the kinds of things they might have previously measured. Or I may ask them to decide what ideological definition they believe applies to them and then ask them to give a short group of details that will evidence their claim. Then we will discuss the validity of their claims and, using either scenario, attempt to give the self-definition context. Why do they think they are what they say they are? What proof do they have that this summation is accurate? I will interject during this discussion that political scientists have some standard explanations as to why people are commonly moved in philosophical directions making some typical textbook references. You also might try using some of the various tools on the Internet for students to evaluate themselves. There are surveys and the like that are available online like: http://www.misterpoll.com/1493957726.html.
With what I hope is a clear view of political ideologies I will introduce movies into the mix. However, I will not ask students initially to analyze the films for their political content because I want them to engage the movies I choose in the way they might normally. Most likely, we will watch Happy Feet and Spider Man 3 because I think the allegorical type films are the most interesting and therefore may strike a chord with my students.
Afterward we will do a simple review of the plot. I will then demonstrate how they might interpret the film, the very same plot, through a political lens (details of the analysis or both of these is included earlier in this unit). This is a really important piece in that I am modeling what they will be asked to do on their own. I don't think the kind of symbiotic relationship that I suggest exists between film and politics will be terribly foreign to them. I anticipate a sort of "ohhhhhh" reaction, at the very least letting me know that their interest will have been sufficiently piqued. It is worth noting that I will ask students to help me apply the ideologies we'd discussed to be sure that the interpretation of film is linked to our disciplinary content.
But here is the sticky part. I am then going to ask students to complete a project whereby they choose three films for political analysis. They may choose current stuff or films from their past, even animated ones. But I think it is important that they choose films to which they feel a strong connection; otherwise this becomes an exercise in relativity. They should then do a short synopsis including political analysis of the type they saw in class (see appendix A for detailed instruction). The project will include finding films on the three levels I indicated in a previous section: editorial, allegorical, and entertainment. We will then have a full class session where each student shares the information they have gathered and we talk about our perception of the accuracy of their analysis.
So here is the culminating activity and the last part of my unit, which brings together the first two and is about the concept of political socialization- the cultural process by which people become their political selves. First, I want them to see if there is some correlation between the films they chose and the political ideology to which they predominately subscribe. If not, there might be an opportunity to rethink their initial analysis and solidify the connection between political thought and the films' political messages. Also they may listen to the commentary about the film that is available on most DVDs to see if maybe the filmmakers/ actors/ others admit that there is a specific implication that students may not have discerned.
Next, I want them to investigate their families concentrating on several key factors: religion, party identification, cultural background, regional orientation, education level and occupations (Burns, 106). Again, we do this as a means of trying to settle on their political origins. Finally I want them to find other elements of their political evolution. It might be music, poetry, musicals, visual arts, television shows. . .anything they can find to support the idea that they have come to political conclusions as a product of multiple influences, and quite possibly, without ever taking into account that it was occurring (see appendix B for instructions).
So in summary, students will first learn about ideologies and a practical, definitive application of each. Then they will determine what they think, based on this understanding, what their own political philosophy might be with regard to those same definitions. This will be followed by a lesson in film analysis for the purposes of finding political rhetoric. And lastly they will surmise whether films and family have led them down a path that they had previously not necessarily given either credit for doing.
Burns, James, Government By the People, 2001-2002 edition (Prentice Hall). This is the Advanced Placement US Government text that is rather short and simple. It is heavily laden with terminology and is especially important in this respect in that the test is largely a measure of a students understanding of the language of government. It also, for this purposes of this unit covers concepts like the role of media in politics, political ideologies and political patterns of behavior including the idea of political socialization.
Corrigan, Timothy, The Film Experience, 2004 (Bedford/ St. Martin's). This book is written on the college level but might be a nice resource for teachers wanting to learn more about the discipline of studying film. For my unit chapter 10 on global and local perspectives that includes a discussion of History and Hollywood, the context of historical films and a discussion of film and culture seem particularly useful.
Faragher, Buhle, Czitrom, Armitage, Out of Many: A History of the American People, fourth edition (Prentice Hall, 2003). Advanced Placement U.S. History textbook that can be a fairly tough read without some guidance. The real perk of the text is that it includes practice data base questions at the end of each chapter. Although the book is quite involved it proves to be an excellent reference for students of history. For this unit I simply used it as a reference for the material of the women's movement of the 1970s.
Turner, Graeme, Film as Social Practice, second edition (Routledge Press, 1988). A rather complicated book that deals with issues related to film and its various interrelated consequences in a larger cultural sense. But it also delves rather deep into some concepts that students on the high school level, unless quite advanced would have trouble understanding. Teachers, however, would be quite interested to read the chapter on film in text and context that I reference in this unit. It is not overly verbose, clearly helping instructors comprehend how a film has both a meaning unto itself and a meaning within the general culture from which it was derived.
An Inconvenient Truth. Dir. Davis Guggenheim. Writ. Davis Guggenheim and Albert Gore, Jr. Paramount Pictures, 2006. Part docu-drama, part lecture this film very directly tells the audience that there is a global warning problem no longer available for debate. It insists that the notion that scientists believe this phenomenon to be unknown is false and that there is a tremendous amount of evidence pointing directly to a green house effect of unfathomable proportions. Gore also paints himself as a long time crusader for this cause and interjects a number of personal stories to draw the audience to his sense of humanity. It is at the same time an indictment of those who remain unsure about the global waning trend, most pointedly the current administration.
Bowling For Columbine. Dir. Michael Moore. Writ. Michael Moore. Alliance Atlantis Communications, 2002. This film exposes various problems with the American gun ownership and begs viewers to consider whether or not violence in this country is directly attributable to our obsession with the protection of the right to bear arms. Michael Moore, in particular, focuses his animus on the National Rifle Association and its' President Charlton Heston.
Fahrenheit 9/11. Dir. Michael Moore. Writ. Michael Moore. Lions Gate Films, 2004. This film attempts to portray the Bush Administration as insincere in its motives to begin the War with Iraq after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks. Moore uses visual imagery and his own overdubbed editorial to make the President look like a fool in most cases, and in others, to have motives that are completely apart from what his rhetoric might otherwise indicate. It is a severely critical view of our impetus to war and unsympathetic in its presentation of Bush, his Family and his administration.
Fog of War: Eleven Lessons form the Life of Robert S. McNamara. Dir. Errol Morris. Writ. Errol Morris. Sony Pictures Classic, 2003. This documentary deals with various historical and political issues that arise from the various experiences of Robert McNamara, one time Secretary of Defense under both Presidents Kennedy and Johnson. In the film McNamara and Morris explore questions about the use of the Atomic bomb, complications surrounding the Cuban Missile Crisis, and our entry into and exit from the Vietnam War. It is reconsideration, if you will, as former Secretary McNamara looks back at his life and tries to give Americans some sense of the wrong and right in war. Indeed, his testimony reveals how thick sometimes the fog of war can be, thus clouding our vision of the true nature of its existence,
Appendix A- Film Analysis
For this project students should choose three films. They should fit within the three categories we discussed in class: editorial, allegorical, and entertainment. The films should also be those about which you have a particular fondness. If you cannot seem to identify one for all three please ask your parents for direction. For instance they may remember films from earlier years in your life that you cannot. If all seems lost please talk to me about your progress. Once you have identified the appropriate films you will fill in the following:
- Title of the film and other bibliographic information (studio, director, writer, producer, and year of production.
- Identify the main characters.
- Synopsis of the Plot- Students should simply describe what happens in the film. Here is an example:
- >In Happy Feet the main character is a young penguin that is outcast from the greater community of penguins because of his inability to sing like the others. His own talents and his ambition to show his worth lead him on a trek of self-discovery and bravery that leads to his capture by human beings. This also, ironically, reveals the cause of problems the penguins have experienced in their ecosystem. Primarily fisherman have depleted the waters and left the penguins with little sustenance. In the end, his persistence and success in communicating with humans results in the triumphant return of the young penguin, his being accepted by his peers, and his stopping the damaging activities of men.
- Political Analysis- Students should then speculate about the political trappings in each film. To make sure there is some continuity to this piece I ask students to complete the following objectives:
- hat political points are being made? How do they relate to modern or historical political moments? Why might the filmmakers choose this topic? Do they seem to have some special interest?
- f there is a commentary track available, please listen and note if there is greater insight provided into perhaps political motivations in the film.
- lso, students should find and read at least one review of the film in a popular publication. This might be in a newspaper, magazine, or online review.
- The last part of the project involves your opinions. What impact did this film have on you? Do you agree with the films' political bend? Did you previously notice the films political implications? Do you think this film has played a part in shaping your own political views? Why or why not?
Appendix B- Political Socialization
In this exercise we want to delve into our intimate political surroundings as a way of determining perhaps our own political socialization. There are several parts listed below.
- Define the term political socialization.
- Ask your parents if they identify themselves with a political party, if they have consistently voted in one direction and then ask them to list at least 4 reasons they would give to support this decision. If they waffle a bit ask them to explain why they do not subscribe to one or the other.
- Identify the education, religious, and ethnic background of your parents and grandparents (as best you can). Using the explanations in the textbook see if perhaps this demographic information aligns with the answers in number one.
- Identify your own political leanings and see if one and two align with who you have become politically. In other words answer the question, "does my families political identity, our ethnicity, our religion, and our cumulative educational achievements have something to do with my political opinions?"
- Look further into your world to find hints of political influence. Find two examples in your favorite music, two examples in your favorite television shows, and at least one other example that is specifically pertinent to your every day likes or dislikes. It could be a piece of poetry, visual art, a musical, an example in a piece of literature, or maybe even a video game. Analyze these just as we did film. What political points are your examples making and why? Do they seem to match what you think on a particular subject or set of subjects? Have any of these played a role in your political socialization? Do they lend credence or create a sense of validity about a way you have previously thought on a given subject?