Internship Essay Thesis

Better Thesis Statements

What is a thesis statement?  

A thesis statement is the central claim that the author promises to defend in his or her paper.

 

Why do I need a thesis statement?  

A thesis statement tells the reader where the paper is headed and why s/he should bother going there. It serves to engage the reader’s interest and motivate her or him  to read on. From the writer’s perspective, a thesis statement brings her central claim into focus so that it becomes obvious how to build the rest of the paper. A thesis statement, if it is a good one, helps  the writer decide what arguments and evidence are necessary to make her point.  In a sense, the thesis statement functions as the conscience of a paper; it helps the writer recognize what belongs in the paper and what does not, depending upon the specific promise it makes to the reader.

 

 

How do I come up with a thesis statement?  

All formal papers and essays have a point. You can have some ideas on a topic, or about an issue, but until you distill what you have drawn a conclusion from your research and reflection and captured in it your thesis statement, your formal writing will lack direction and focus. To arrive at a working thesis statement, try to state out loud or write in a single sentence the most important  conclusion you have come to from your research. Here are some examples of simple claims you could make after reading and reflecting in preparation for writing your paper:

 

  • Politicians should use language responsibly if they wish to govern after the campaign.
  • The face plays an important role in human communication.
  • Migrating Atlantic seabirds need more protection along their migration paths.

 

Sentences like these, each of which makes a claim, are adequate as “working thesis statements”. As you write, research, arrange, and think through other supporting ideas in your paper, you should be moved to refine your working thesis statement to 1) narrow it, 2) make it more consequential or controversial, or 3) put it in a specific context. With more research and thought, we might revise A.-C. above as follows:

 

  • The speed, reach, and permanence of mass media today can threaten a candidate’s ability to govern once elected.
  • Although poets have always noted the role of the face in human communication, facial expression has lately become the subject of intense scientific scrutiny, with the potential for profound social consequences. 
  • Offshore wind farms, chemical pollution from industrialized livestock facilities, new coastal housing developments pose a triple threat to millions of migrating seabirds who have made their way along the Eastern seaboard of the U.S. for millennia. 

 

These revised thesis statements make specific promises to the reader. Can you predict what kinds of evidence or support a writer might include in his or her essay based on one of these thesis statements?

A good thesis statement gives you room to develop your ideas as you wish, but within the boundaries imposed by your knowledge, time, and page limits. We use the word “narrow” to describe a good thesis statement but we don’t mean “narrow-minded” or “stingy”. Instead, a narrow thesis statement is focused and fits the size and scope of your paper.  When everything in your paper is selected to support or explore your thesis statement, then you are enjoying the benefits of a good thesis statement.

Here is a worksheet to help you come up with and refine a good thesis statement.

 

Thesis Statement Worksheet

 

What is your topic (the area of study for this paper)?

What background information does the reader need to know before you state your thesis?

What is your working thesis statement?

 

Test your thesis statement. Does your thesis statement:

 

  • Make a claim that a reader can agree or disagree with?
  • Reflect knowledge of the source material?
  • Pick out an idea that can be defended in the space allowed?
  • Limit the kinds of evidence you can use to defend it?

 

What evidence, examples, or arguments will you use to support the working thesis?

Now that you have thought ahead about your evidence, can you refine your thesis statement to focus on a particular problem and context? (This is where the originality of your claim comes in.)

 

Strong and Weak Thesis Statements Illustrated

Shakespeare was the world’s greatest playwright.

trite, not defensible

The last scene in “Midsummer Night’s Dream” showcases Shakespeare’s ability to manipulate subtle linguistic differences among his characters for comic effect.

intriguing, has an edge

 

This essay will show that the North American Free Trade agreement was a disaster.

emotional, vague

Neither neo-protectionism nor post-industrial theory explains the downswing of the Canadian furniture industry in 1988-1994. Data on productivity and profits, however, can be closely correlated with provisions of the North American Free Trade Agreement that took effect in the same period.

gives context, reflects research, shows intent

 

In the Netherlands, euthanasia is legal. This paper will describe the history of  euthanasia and give case studies.

doesn’t reveal a central claim or focus

Recent cases show that Dutch law on euthanasia has encountered difficulty  with issues involving technological interventions and unconscious patients.

focused, promisesfacts and analysis

The occurrence of measles in medical settings is higher than nosocomial infections, rubella, pertussis, influenza, and nosocomial hepatitis B according to a survey of hospital records.

distracting detail, hard to follow, no context

 

In recent years, transmission of measles in hospitals has been described only rarely. New data suggest that the spread of measles in hospitals is more frequent than previously recognized.                                        

shows purpose andcontext, promises new information of consequence

 

 

 

Myths about thesis statements
  •  A thesis statement is the topic of a paper or what the paper is ‘about.’

 If a reader knows that your paper is about migrating birds, she still doesn’t know what your point is. Only a thesis statement can tell the reader that. A topic merely names the field or subject area of your paper; it doesn’t propose anything. Topics are identified in other sentences that give background information that usually lead up to the thesis statement. Compare the topic sentence below with the thesis statement that follows it:

Topic sentenceThere are few people totally unfamiliar with bingo—that game of chance in which numbers, called at random, are plotted on cards to form patterns and to win prizes.

Thesis statement: In order to understand bingo as a cultural phenomenon it should be studied not as a cultural ‘thing’ but as behavior compatible with a patterned way of life.

 

  •  Some writers put their thesis statement at the end of their paper. 

This myth confuses the concluding section of a paper with the intellectual conclusion a writer must reach in order to begin writing a paper in earnest. Since a good thesis statement is the result of research, reflection, and, sometimes, a draft or two of the entire paper, it might seem that it ought to come at the end of one’s essay. But, in academic writing, what is the outcome of thinking and writing for the writer is best presented as the starting point for the reader. Many writers restate their thesis statement/hypothesis in the concluding section of their papers but few choose to delay revealing their central claim until after they have argued in favor of it

 

  • There are strict rules about the form of a thesis statement. 

You can learn to write better thesis statements by practicing with specific forms, e.g. one where a premise (“If term limits were adopted in today…”) precedes a conclusion (“we would lose valuable legislative experience.”). Yet if you grasp the function of a thesis statement, many forms are possible. It may take the form of a supported assertion as in “I agree with the author because…” or it can direct the reader’s attention to a scientific or philosophical issue as in “Gardner’s theory of Multiple Intelligences has applications in the kindergarten classroom for..” or “The relationship between body and soul remains a central issue in…” Short pithy thesis statements are also possible as in “Television kills”—a claim, to be sure, but one which needs elaboration in nearby sentences to correctly direct the reader’s focus.  

 

  • A thesis statement is just your opinion. 

While a thesis statement does present the reader with a claim, it should go well beyond a simple assertion that anyone can make without detailed information about the topic. Statements such as People are too lazy to solve the environmental crisis we face or Today’s educators need to know how to deal with students who don’t speak English don’t convey that the writer has researched his topic and come away with something new or non-obvious to say. A thesis statement offers an informed opinion that the writer is prepared to support with facts, arguments, analysis, and research-based evidence. It might be helpful to remember that a thesis statement takes a ‘point of view’ which the paper develops so that the reader can decide for himself on the issue.

Resources for Learning

All students in the M.A. program are given the opportunity to complete a major research project on a subject of their choice as part of their degree. The major paper, internship report, and thesis options offer students the opportunity to develop, organize and carry out a lengthy project that will further develop their research and written skills. Both the major paper and thesis options culminate with an oral defence and thus provide students with an experience that will prepare them for oral presentations in a Ph.D. program, at law school, or in government.

Students in the M.A. internship stream must complete an internship report, presented at a public event at the end of the fall semester following the conclusion of their internship. The format of the internship report follows those for the major paper and thesis options detailed below, but the length is shorter (approximately 25 pages), the focus must be related to a public policy issue, and the department's internship coordinator serves as internal reader. Please see the M.A. internship page for more details.

 

Major Paper Requirements and Regulations
1. The length of a major paper will be in the range of 60 pages, excluding notes and bibliography.

2. Each student will be assigned a supervisor, taking into consideration the student’s research area, as well as faculty workload.

3. The supervisor will provide a maximum of 4 supervision hours. This does not include time spent reading and commenting on all or parts of the paper.

4. Major paper examination boards will also include the supervisor and a second internal examiner (from within the Department of Political Science).

5. It is the responsibility of the supervisor to select the internal examiner.

6. Internal examiners may offer 1 hour of supervisory time prior to paper submission, but this will not include a full review of the manuscript. In many cases, the internal examiner will only review the major paper once it has been submitted and approved for defence by the supervisor.

7. The major paper will proceed to defence when the supervisor believes that it is academically ready.

  • The decision to proceed to defence will not occur automatically.
  • The decision to proceed to defence will not be based on the financial needs of the student. The supervisor will only recommend a major paper or thesis proceed to defence when it is academically ready even if this means that a student must register for an extra semester. This is an advanced degree and it will be awarded on academic grounds, not financial need.
  • A student has the right to insist on a defence against the advice of the supervisor. In these circumstances, the student should be advised that there is an increased likelihood that the paper will fail.

8. The Faculty of Graduate Studies requires eight days’ notice between the notification of oral defence and the defence date. The Department of Political Science requires that internal examiners (second readers) be given two weeks to read and prepare for the oral defence. Each semester, the Faculty of Graduate Studies provides a list of important dates that includes the final possible date for defence before fees become due for the next semester.

9. All major papers and theses must follow one of the following referencing styles: Chicago; MLA; APA. Information on these styles and other writing tips are available online through the Leddy Library.

10. The final preparation of the major paper or thesis must follow the Faculty of Graduate Studies’ format specifications. These are available on the Faculty of Graduate Studies website.

11. Papers will be assigned a pass/fail grade. A major paper may be passed with no changes; passed with minor changes; or passed with major changes.

12. If the decision is made to pass the paper with minor changes, it is expected that the supervisor and second reader will clearly establish for the student the changes that need to be made. Ideally, this will take the form of providing the student with a written list, and/or a marked copy of the paper. It is the job of the supervisor to determine when the minor changes have been satisfactorily completed.

13. In cases where the paper has been passed with major changes, the committee must decide how satisfactory completion is to be determined. This may include the committee reviewing the paper, a second defence, or leaving the determination to the supervisor. The committee should provide the student with a detailed outline of the changes that are required. In addition, the committee MUST prepare a recommendation detailing how satisfactory completion is to be determined and forward this to the Dean of Graduate Studies.

 

Thesis Requirements and Regulations
1. A thesis will be at least 100 pages, but will not exceed 150 pages, excluding notes and bibliography.

2. Thesis examination boards will include the supervisor, internal examiner, an outside examiner from another department within the university, and a chair of the defence committee from within the department (the chair does not participate in the assessment of the thesis).

3. The supervisor will select the internal examiner early in the thesis writing process and the internal examiner will be expected to participate in the thesis preparation process in some way. The exact working relationship between the student, supervisor, and internal examiner, however, will be developed on a case-by-case basis. In every case, the primary responsibility for the thesis lies with the student, assisted by the supervisor.

4. The supervisor will select the external examiner once the thesis has been approved to proceed to defence. At this time also, the supervisor is responsible for arranging for a chair of the defence committee.

5. There is no formal due date for a thesis, but the department encourages students to complete their thesis within one year of starting the program.

6. The thesis will proceed to defence when the supervisor believes that it is academically ready

  • The decision to proceed to defence will not occur automatically.
  • The decision to proceed to defence will not be based on the financial needs of the student. The supervisor will only recommend a thesis proceed to defence when it is academically ready even if this means that a student must register for an extra semester. This is an advanced degree and it will be awarded on academic grounds, not financial need.
  • A student has the right to insist on a defence against the advice of the supervisor. In these circumstances, the student should be advised that there is an increased likelihood that the thesis will fail.

7. The Faculty of Graduate Studies requires eight days’ notice between the notification of oral defence and the defence date. The Department of Political Science requires that internal examiners (second readers) and external examiners be given at least two weeks to read the thesis and prepare for the oral defence. Each semester, the Faculty of Graduate Studies provides a list of important dates that includes the final possible date for defence before fees become due for the next semester. 

8. All major papers and theses must follow one of the following referencing styles: Chicago; MLA; APA. Information on these styles and other writing tips are available online through the Leddy Library.

9. The final preparation of the thesis must follow the Faculty of Graduate Studies’ format specifications. These are available on the Faculty of Graduate Studies website.

10. A thesis may be passed with no changes; passed with minor changes; or passed with major changes. In addition, the thesis will be assigned a letter grade with a B- the minimum passing grade. The grade is assigned to the thesis at the time of the defence; that is, before either minor or major changes have been made if requested by the committee.

11. If the decision is made to pass the thesis with minor changes, it is expected that the supervisor and second reader will clearly establish for the student the changes that need to be made. Ideally, this will take the form of providing the student with a written list, and/or a marked copy of the thesis. It is the job of the supervisor to determine when the minor changes have been satisfactorily completed.

12. In cases where the thesis has been passed with major changes, the committee must decide how satisfactory completion is to be determined. This may include the committee reviewing the thesis, a second defence, or leaving the determination to the supervisor. The committee should provide the student with a detailed outline of the changes that are required. In addition, the committee MUST prepare a recommendation detailing how satisfactory completion is to be determined and forward this to the Dean of Graduate Studies.

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