Romantic Period Classical Music Essay
“To say the word romanticism is to say modern art - that is, intimacy, spirituality, color, aspiration towards the infinite, expressed by every means available to the arts.” Charles Baudelaire. The Romantic era in classical music symbolized an epochal time that circumnavigated the whole of Western culture. Feelings of deep emotion were beginning to be expressed in ways that would have seemed once inappropriate. Individualism began to grip you people by its reins and celebrate their unique personalities and minds. Some youth began to wear their hair long, their beards scraggly and unkept, and their clothing was inspired by the outlandish and the flamboyant. Music morphed from a once tangible aural stimulant into music marked by its decent into the depths of human emotions most of which were not rational. Classical music became a stream of consciousness, a vehicle to convey their countless emotions. In the Romantic Period, music now voiced what, for centuries, people had been too afraid to express. The culture, the composers, and the music of the Romantic era changed classical music profoundly. The Romantic era classical music manifested itself as a time of the irrational and peculiar, a time that allowed many people the opportunity to express their inmost convictions through the music.
The culture of the Romantic Period marks an era shrouded in astonishing and rapid change, socially and economically. In Europe, between the years 1825 and 1900, enormous technological developments occurred. With the Industrial Revolution full force, the inventions of railroads and steamboats satisfied an insatiable desire for speedy travel and transportation of goods. Photography was changing the way in which history was recorded. The invention of the telegraph and the telephone provided a means for faster communication and the proliferation of the practical usage of electricity headed by Thomas Alva Edison in America forever changed the home lives of Americans and others around the globe. New jobs in these industries, including factories and mines helped to create multiple layers of economic classes. There were no longer just wealthy and poor; there was now a distinct middle class that was gaining strength. Advances in medical sciences also created more jobs that further created more class layers. The growing middle class led to a popularization of Classical music, because now non-wealthy people could attend concerts. The number of concert halls and professional orchestras increased greatly to satiate the public’s desire to attend Classical music concerts. Many of the world’s greatest orchestras were formed during the Romantic Period. Europe also sheltered a revival of Gothic styles, which can be seen in architecture and the penchant for elaborate castles and palaces. Philosophers such as Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, and Hegel developed their distinct views of man’s relationship with the world, other people, and nature itself. ...
Loading: Checking Spelling0%
Comparing Classical and Romantic Music through the finale of Mozart's "Clarinet Quintet" and Mahler's Symphony no.1 in D major "Titan"2433 words - 10 pages The Music of the classical and Romantic era is a period of time where it shows the development and different styles of music. This can be shown through the manipulation of musical elements, (dynamics, pitch, tempo, rhythm, texture, meter, tonality, structure, melody, harmony, instrument) while contrasting them, but it can also be shown through the composers of the music, the size of the orchestra, musical directions, emotional content, and...
Beethoven - Living in the two different music periods1256 words - 5 pages Ludwig van Beethoven, was one of the world's greatest artists lived almost exactly 30 years on each side of the year 1800, straddling the two centuries and periods of music. This is important because he belongs not only to the classical era but also the romantic. Many say Beethoven was the one who changed music from the Classical period to the Romanic, but it is for sure that even before the romantic era began Beethoven was composing music...
The Classical Era Of Music and the Major Composers of that Time696 words - 3 pages Getting its name from art history, the Classical period of music began in 1750 and ended in 1820 and includes the music. During these 70 years music changed drastically. The four major composers of the Classical era were Haydn, Mozart, Gluck, and Beethoven.The classical era began at the end of the Baroque Era. Classical music is...
Beethoven's Seventh symphony1095 words - 4 pages Music historians have debated on whether Beethoven’s music fits more with the Romantic or the Classical era. Beethoven was a student of Haydn, which makes his roots clearly classical, but he does not fit the mold of a classical composer. Due to his lack of reverence to musical form, allegiance to the cult of the individual, and innovative use of musical concepts, Beethoven is seen as the bridge between the Classical and Romantic era. In the case...
spanish 2922 words - 4 pages March 31, 2013BeethovenBeethoven's DeafnessLudwig van Beethoven was a master composer who began losing his hearing at an early age. The deafness caused him to him live in isolation, as he felt his hearing should be better than that of others, since he was a musician. His later works were written in total deafness, and in fact, he...
How to Listen to Music.1169 words - 5 pages Different styles of music effect people in many ways. The different styles could be different in religion, culture, and their messages towards the public. Because of the many styles , many questions are found concerning how different music effects people in different ways. Every style of music have their own beats, melodies, and instruments which give different effects to the human year. From that difference people perceive these styles of...
Classical Music843 words - 3 pages Classical music is important for many reasons. However before the benefits of classical music can be brought to light, it is important to clarify what "classical music" really is. There are many misconceptions on what classical music is. The name "classical music" is applied to the Viennese Classical expression, which flourished in the late...
Romanticism Period Music1155 words - 5 pages Romanticism was a period of freedom and expression. The movement started in the early 1700s and died down in the mid 1880s. It originated in Germany and England then spread to other European countries. Some of the romanticism periods' goals were to oppose rationalism and social conventions. People discovered the natural beauty of things and the natural man. People had a great interest in mystical, medieval and oriental themes. Music was a huge...
Importance of Improvisation in Music776 words - 3 pages The Importance of Improvisation in Music HistoryWhen one thinks of jazz, one's mind should immediately spring to 'improvisation.' It is a true characteristic of the jazz art form, but it truly is a rarity when seen in a historical context.Improvisation has been an integral part of music since the very beginning of music, and it hasbeen a very important element in
The History of Music and the Variety of Uses1406 words - 6 pages As Plato said “Music is a moral law. It gives a soul to the universe, wings to the mind, flight to the imagination, a charm to sadness, and life to everything.” Music has a very complex history and it is used in a variety of ways. Music is used for entertainment and also in the medical field. Music has become an important part of the world since its birth, and it has various uses around the world. Music became an important part of the world...
Romanticism in Music1979 words - 8 pages Romanticism in Music Romantic: of, characterized by, or suggestive of an idealised, sentimental, or fantastic view of reality… concerned more with feeling and emotion than with form and aesthetic qualities. The Concise Oxford Dictionary, Eighth edition, 1991. The term romantic first appeared at sometime during the latter half of the 18th Century, meaning in quite literal English, "romance-like", usually referring to the character...
This article is about the genre of music. For the traditional term in music, see Romance (music). For other uses, see Romantic (disambiguation).
Romantic music is a period of Western classical music that began in the late 18th or early 19th century. It is related to Romanticism, the European artistic and literary movement that arose in the second half of the 18th century, and Romantic music in particular dominated the Romantic movement in Germany.
In the Romantic period, music became more expressive and emotional, expanding to encompass literary, artistic, and philosophical themes. Famous early Romantic composers include Beethoven (whose works span both this period and the preceding Classical period), Schubert, Schumann, Chopin, Mendelssohn, Bellini, and Berlioz. The late 19th century saw a dramatic expansion in the size of the orchestra and in the dynamic range and diversity of instruments used in this ensemble. Also, public concerts became a key part of urbanmiddle class society, in contrast to earlier periods, when concerts were mainly paid for by and performed for aristocrats. Famous composers from the second half of the century include Bruckner, Johann Strauss II, Brahms, Liszt, Tchaikovsky, Dvořák, Verdi, and Wagner. Between 1890 and 1910, a third wave of composers including Mahler, Richard Strauss, Puccini, and Sibelius built on the work of middle Romantic composers to create even more complex – and often much longer – musical works. A prominent mark of late 19th century music is its nationalistic fervor, as exemplified by such figures as Dvořák, Sibelius, and Grieg. Other prominent late-century figures include Saint-Saëns, Fauré, Rachmaninoff and Franck.
Main article: Romanticism
The Romantic movement was an artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th century in Europe and strengthened in reaction to the Industrial Revolution (Encyclopædia Britannica n.d.). In part, it was a revolt against social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment and a reaction against the scientific rationalization of nature (Casey 2008). It was embodied most strongly in the visual arts, music, and literature, but had a major impact on historiography (Levin 1959,[page needed]) and education (Gutek 1995, 220–54), and was in turn influenced by developments in natural history (Nichols 2005, 308–309).
One of the first significant applications of the term to music was in 1789, in the Mémoires by the Frenchman André Grétry, but it was E.T.A. Hoffmann who really established the principles of musical romanticism, in a lengthy review of Ludwig van Beethoven's Fifth Symphony published in 1810, and in an 1813 article on Beethoven's instrumental music. In the first of these essays Hoffmann traced the beginnings of musical Romanticism to the later works of Haydn and Mozart. It was Hoffmann's fusion of ideas already associated with the term "Romantic", used in opposition to the restraint and formality of Classical models, that elevated music, and especially instrumental music, to a position of pre-eminence in Romanticism as the art most suited to the expression of emotions. It was also through the writings of Hoffmann and other German authors that German music was brought to the centre of musical Romanticism (Samson 2001).
Characteristics often attributed to Romanticism:
- a new preoccupation with and surrender to Nature;
- a fascination with the past, particularly the Middle Ages and legends of medieval chivalry;
- a turn towards the mystic and supernatural, both religious and merely spooky;
- a longing for the infinite;
- mysterious connotations of remoteness, the unusual and fabulous, the strange and surprising;
- a focus on the nocturnal, the ghostly, the frightful, and terrifying;
- fantastic seeing and spiritual experiences;
- a new attention given to national identity;
- emphasis on extreme subjectivism;
- interest in the autobiographical;
- discontent with musical formulas and conventions.
Such lists, however, proliferated over time, resulting in a "chaos of antithetical phenomena", criticized for their superficiality and for signifying so many different things that there came to be no central meaning. The attributes have also been criticized for being too vague. For example, features of the "ghostly and supernatural" could apply equally to Mozart'sDon Giovanni from 1787 and Stravinsky'sThe Rake's Progress from 1951 (Kravitt 1992, 93–95).
From a musical stance the following aspect could be used to distinguish romantic music from previous eras:
- The use of a wider range of dynamics (from ppp to FFF);
- Using a larger tonal range (exp. using the lowest and highest notes of the piano);
- Large orchestrations (Started by Ludwig Beethoven);
- The use of more elaborate harmonic progressions (Wagner and Liszt are known for their experimental progressions);
- The use of new or previously not so common musical structures like the nocturne, concert etude, arabesque and rhapsody;
- Led by the characteristics described above, composers were more inclined to write programme music (Most notably Franz Liszt).
Trends of the 19th century
Events and changes that happen in society such as ideas, attitudes, discoveries, inventions, and historical events always affect music. For example, the Industrial Revolution was in full effect by the late 18th century and early 19th century. This event had a very profound effect on music: there were major improvements in the mechanical valves, and keys that most woodwinds and brass instruments depend on. The new and innovative instruments could be played with greater ease and they were more reliable (Schmidt-Jones and Jones 2004, 3).
Another development that had an effect on music was the rise of the middle class. Composers before this period lived on the patronage of the aristocracy. Many times their audience was small, composed mostly of the upper class and individuals who were knowledgeable about music (Schmidt-Jones and Jones 2004, 3). The Romantic composers, on the other hand, often wrote for public concerts and festivals, with large audiences of paying customers, who had not necessarily had any music lessons (Schmidt-Jones and Jones 2004, 3). Composers of the Romantic Era, like Elgar, showed the world that there should be "no segregation of musical tastes" (Young 1967, 525) and that the "purpose was to write music that was to be heard" (Young 1967, 527).
Main article: Musical nationalism
During the Romantic period, music often took on a much more nationalistic purpose. For example, Jean Sibelius' Finlandia has been interpreted to represent the rising nation of Finland, which would someday gain independence from Russian control (Child 2006). Frédéric Chopin was one of the first composers to incorporate nationalistic elements into his compositions. Joseph Machlis states, "Poland's struggle for freedom from tsarist rule aroused the national poet in Poland. … Examples of musical nationalism abound in the output of the romantic era. The folk idiom is prominent in the Mazurkas of Chopin" (Machlis 1963, 149–50). His mazurkas and polonaises are particularly notable for their use of nationalistic rhythms. Moreover, "During World War II the Nazis forbade the playing of … Chopin's Polonaises in Warsaw because of the powerful symbolism residing in these works" (Machlis 1963, 150). Other composers, such as Bedřich Smetana, wrote pieces that musically described their homelands; in particular, Smetana's Vltava is a symphonic poem about the Moldau River in the modern-day Czech Republic and the second in a cycle of six nationalistic symphonic poems collectively titled Má vlast (My Homeland) (Grunfeld 1974, 112–13). Smetana also composed eight nationalist operas, all of which remain in the repertory. They established him as the first Czech nationalist composer as well as the most important Czech opera composer of the generation who came to prominence in the 1860s (Ottlová, Tyrrell, and Pospíšil 2001).
- Beard, David, and Kenneth Gloag. 2005. Musicology: The Key Concepts. Cornwall: Routledge.
- Casey, Christopher. 2008. "'Grecian Grandeurs and the Rude Wasting of Old Time': Britain, the Elgin Marbles, and Post-Revolutionary Hellenism". Foundations 3, no. 1:31–64 (Accessed 24 September 2012).
- Child, Fred. 2006. "Salonen on Sibelius". Performance Today. National Public Radio.
- Encyclopædia Britannica (n.d.). "Romanticism". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2010-08-24.
- Feld, Marlon. n.d. "Summary of Western Classical Music History". Linked from John Ito, Music Humanities, section 16. New York: Columbia University (accessed 11 April 2016).
- Grétry, André-Ernest-Modeste. 1789. Mémoires, ou Essai sur la musique. 3 vols. Paris: Chez l’auteur, de L'Imprimerie de la république, 1789. Second, enlarged edition, Paris: Imprimerie de la république, pluviôse, 1797. Republished, 3 vols., Paris: Verdiere, 1812; Brussels: Whalen, 1829. Facsimile of the 1797 edition, Da Capo Press Music Reprint Series. New York: Da Capo Press, 1971. Facsimile reprint in 1 volume of the 1829 Brussels edition, Bibliotheca musica Bononiensis, Sezione III no. 43. Bologna: Forni Editore, 1978.
- Grunfeld, Frederic V. 1974. Music. New York: Newsweek Books. ISBN 0-88225-101-5 (cloth); ISBN 0882251023 (de luxe).
- Gutek, Gerald Lee. 1995. A History of the Western Educational Experience, second edition. Prospect Heights, Ill.: Waveland Press. ISBN 0881338184.
- Hoffmann, Ernst Theodor Amadeus. 1810. "Recension: Sinfonie pour 2 Violons, 2 Violes, Violoncelle e Contre-Violon, 2 Flûtes, petite Flûte, 2 Hautbois, 2 Clarinettes, 2 Bassons, Contrabasson, 2 Cors, 2 Trompettes, Timbales et 3 Trompes, composée et dediée etc. par Louis van Beethoven. à Leipsic, chez Breitkopf et Härtel, Oeuvre 67. No. 5. des Sinfonies. (Pr. 4 Rthlr. 12 Gr.)". Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung 12, no. 40 (4 July), cols. 630–42 [Der Beschluss folgt.]; 12, no. 41 (11 July), cols. 652–59.
- Kravitt, Edward F. 1992. "Romanticism Today". The Musical Quarterly 76, no. 1 (Spring): 93–109. (subscription required)
- Levin, David. 1959. History as Romantic Art: Bancroft, Prescott, and Parkman. Stanford Studies in Language and Literature 20, Stanford: Stanford University Press. Reprinted as a Harbinger Book, New York: Harcourt, Brace & World Inc., 1963. Reprinted, New York: AMS Press, 1967.
- Machlis, Joseph. 1963.[full citation needed]
- Nichols, Ashton. 2005. "Roaring Alligators and Burning Tygers: Poetry and Science from William Bartram to Charles Darwin". Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 149, no. 3:304–15.
- Ottlová, Marta, John Tyrrell, and Milan Pospíšil. 2001. "Smetana, Bedřich [Friedrich]". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. London: Macmillan Publishers.
- Philips, Abbey. 2011. "Spacebomb: Truth Lies Somewhere in Between". RVA News: Joaquin in Memphis. (accessed 5 October 2015)
- Samson, Jim. 2001. "Romanticism". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. London: Macmillan Publishers.
- Schmidt-Jones, Catherine, and Russell Jones. 2004. Introduction to Music Theory. [Houston, TX]: Connexions Project. ISBN 1-4116-5030-1.
- Young, Percy Marshall. 1967. A History of British Music. London: Benn.
- Adler, Guido. 1911. Der Stil in der Musik. Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel.
- Adler, Guido. 1919. Methode der Musikgeschichte. Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel.
- Adler, Guido. 1930. Handbuch der Musikgeschichte, second, thoroughly revised and greatly expanded edition. 2 vols. Berlin-Wilmersdorf: H. Keller. Reprinted, Tutzing: Schneider, 1961.
- Blume, Friedrich. 1970. Classic and Romantic Music, translated by M. D. Herter Norton from two essays first published in Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart. New York: W. W. Norton.
- Boyer, Jean-Paul. 1961. "Romantisme". Encyclopédie de la musique, edited by François Michel, with François Lesure and Vladimir Fédorov, 3:585–87. Paris: Fasquelle.
- Cavalletti, Carlo. 2000. Chopin and Romantic Music, translated by Anna Maria Salmeri Pherson. Hauppauge, NY: Barron's Educational Series. (Hardcover) ISBN 0-7641-5136-3; ISBN 978-0-7641-5136-1.
- Dahlhaus, Carl. 1979. "Neo-Romanticism". 19th-Century Music 3, no. 2 (November): 97–105.
- Dahlhaus, Carl. 1980. Between Romanticism and Modernism: Four Studies in the Music of the Later Nineteenth Century, translated by Mary Whittall in collaboration with Arnold Whittall; also with Friedrich Nietsche, "On Music and Words", translated by Walter Arnold Kaufmann. California Studies in 19th Century Music 1. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-03679-4 (cloth); 0520067487 (pbk). Original German edition, as Zwischen Romantik und Moderne: vier Studien zur Musikgeschichte des späteren 19. Jahrhunderts. Munich: Musikverlag Katzbichler, 1974.
- Dahlhaus, Carl. 1985. Realism in Nineteenth-Century Music, translated by Mary Whittall. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-26115-5 (cloth); ISBN 0-521-27841-4 (pbk). Original German edition, as Musikalischer Realismus: zur Musikgeschichte des 19. Jahrhunderts. Munich: R. Piper, 1982. ISBN 3-492-00539-X.
- Dahlhaus, Carl. 1987. Untitled review of Leon Plantinga, Romantic Music: A History of Musical Styles in Nineteenth-Century Europe and Anthology of Romantic Music, translated by Ernest Sanders. 19th Century Music 11, no. 2:194–96.
- Einstein, Alfred. 1947. Music in the Romantic Era. New York: W. W. Norton.
- Geck, Martin. 1998. "Realismus". Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart: Allgemeine Enzyklopädie der Musik begründe von Friedrich Blume, second, revised edition, edited by Ludwig Finscher. Sachteil 8: Quer–Swi, cols. 91–99. Kassel, Basel, London, New York, Prague: Bärenreiter; Suttgart and Weimar: Metzler. ISBN 3-7618-1109-8 (Bärenreiter); ISBN 3-476-41008-0 (Metzler).
- Grout, Donald Jay. 1960. A History of Western Music. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
- Lang, Paul Henry. 1941. Music in Western Civilization. New York: W. W. Norton.
- Mason, Daniel Gregory. 1936. The Romantic Composers. New York: Macmillan.
- Plantinga, Leon. 1984. Romantic Music: A History of Musical Style in Nineteenth-Century Europe. A Norton Introduction to Music History. New York: W. W. Norton. ISBN 0-393-95196-0; ISBN 978-0-393-95196-7.
- Rosen, Charles. 1995. The Romantic Generation. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-77933-9.
- Rummenhöller, Peter. 1989. Romantik in der Musik: Analysen, Portraits, Reflexionen. Munich: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag; Kassel and New York: Bärenreiter. ISBN 9783761812365 (Bärenreiter); ISBN 9783761844939 (Taschenbuch Verlag); ISBN 9783423044936 (Taschenbuch Verlag).
- Spencer, Stewart. 2008. "The 'Romantic Operas' and the Turn to Myth". In The Cambridge Companion to Wagner, edited by Thomas S. Grey, 67–73. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-64299-X (cloth); ISBN 0-521-64439-9 (pbk).
- Wagner, Richard. 1995. Opera and Drama, translated by William Ashton Ellis. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. Originally published as volume 2 of Richard Wagner's Prose Works (London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., 1900), a translation from Gesammelte Schriften und Dichtungen (Leipzig, 1871–73, 1883).
- Warrack, John. 2002. "Romanticism". The Oxford Companion to Music, edited by Alison Latham. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-866212-2.
- Wehnert, Martin. 1998. "Romantik und romantisch". Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart: allgemeine Enzyklopädie der Musik, begründet von Friedrich Blume, second revised edition. Sachteil 8: Quer–Swi, cols. 464–507. Basel, Kassel, London, Munich, and Prague: Bärenreiter; Stuttgart and Weimar: Metzler.