Currently, one of the most challenging issues in modern neuroscience is learning-induced neural plasticity. Many researchers have identified activation-dependent structural brain plasticity in gray and white matter. The game of Baduk is... more
Currently, one of the most challenging issues in modern neuroscience is learning-induced neural plasticity. Many researchers have identified activation-dependent structural brain plasticity in gray and white matter. The game of Baduk is known to require many cognitive processes, and long-term training in such processes would be expected to cause structural changes in related brain areas. We conducted voxel-based analyses of diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) data and found that, compared to inexperienced controls, long-term trained Baduk players developed larger regions of white matter with increased fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the frontal, cingulum, and striato-thalamic areas that are related to attentional control, working memory, executive regulation, and problem-solving. In addition, inferior temporal regions with increased FA indicate that Baduk experts tend to develop a task-specific template for the game, as compared to controls. In contrast, decreased FA found in dorsolateral premotor and parietal areas indicate that Baduk experts were less likely than were controls to use structures related to load-dependent memory capacity. Right-side dominance in Baduk experts suggests that the tasks involved are mainly spatial processes. Altogether, long-term Baduk training appears to cause structural brain changes associated with many of the cognitive aspects necessary for game play, and investigation of the mechanism underpinning such changes might be helpful for improving higher-order cognitive capacities, such as learning, abstract reasoning, and self-control, which can facilitate education and cognitive therapies.
Peer review form for a problem-solving paperfrom Northern Illinois University's English Department.
Read the essay once through, then read a second time before beginning to answer the following questions:
1) What is the major problem or issue the writer addresses? State this problem as clearly as you can in your own words.
2) Does the author outline different aspects of the problem? What are they? If the author doesn't explain various aspects of the problem, what are some possible aspects that you recognize?
3) Who do you think is the audience of this paper? Would this audience be likely to respond positively or negatively to the essay's tone, diction (vocabulary), and suggested solutions? Why? Also, does the author seem to anticipate his/her audience's concerns or objections? If not, try to offer some helpful suggestions.
4) Analyze each of the proposed solutions. What does each solution promise to accomplish? What are the limitations of each solution? If the author does not mention possible limitations, suggest at least one limitation of each solution.
5) Do the proposed solutions seem feasible? If not, explain why.
6) Evaluate the conclusion. Does this seem to be the best solution? If not, explain why. List at least one drawback or limitation of this solution.
7) In your opinion, which solution or combination of solutions best serves the goals outlined by the author? Why?
If teaching a writing class, you may want to also focus on elements of style.
8) Does the author use transition words at the beginning of each paragraph? Do the transitions make logical connections between ideas or items?
9) Examine one paragraph in the essay. How many be verbs does the author use in this paragraph? Rewrite one or two sentences replacing be verbs with action verbs.