For other people named Edward Taylor, see Edward Taylor (disambiguation).
Edward Taylor (c.1642—June 29, 1729) was of English origin and a colonial American poet, pastor and physician. His work remained unpublished for some 200 years but since then has established him as one of the foremost writers of his time. His poetry has been characterized as "American Baroque" as well as Metaphysical.
The son of a nonconformistyeoman farmer, Taylor is thought to have been born in 1642 at Sketchley.[a], Leicestershire. There is conflicting evidence in regard to the dates and locations of events in his early life, but he grew up during the Commonwealth of England and under the influence of his father became a convinced Protestant dissenter. His childhood was spent on the family farm where he enjoyed the stability of a middle-class upbringing. His later writings are full of influences from his farmhouse childhood, both as regards imagery, and in the occasional use of the Leicestershire dialect.
Taylor's mother and father died in 1657 and 1658, respectively. He continued to develop alone and the extent of his formal education is unknown. For some time he worked as schoolmaster at Bagworth but following the restoration of the monarchy, Taylor refused to sign the Act of Uniformity, which cost him his teaching position. It was at this point that he began to write poetry in which he continued to lament the loss of religious freedoms after he emigrated to the Massachusetts Bay Colony in America in 1668.
Taylor's Atlantic crossing and subsequent years (from April 26, 1668, to July 5, 1671) are chronicled in his now-published Diary. Just two weeks after landing in Boston, he was admitted to Harvard College as a second year student to prepare himself for ordination, studying a variety of topics and languages. Upon graduation in 1671 his first choice was to stay at university and become a resident scholar. But just a week later he accepted the call to serve as pastor and physician at Westfield, on the remote western frontier of Massachusetts, where he remained until his death 58 years later.
He was twice married: first to Elizabeth Fitch, by whom he had eight children, five of whom died in childhood; and at her death to Ruth Wyllys, who bore him six more children. Taylor himself died in Westfield on June 29, 1729.
Taylor's poems, in leather bindings of his own manufacture, survived him, but he had left explicit instructions that his heirs should never publish any of his writings and the poems remained all but forgotten for more than 200 years. In 1937 Thomas H. Johnson discovered a 7,000-page quarto manuscript of Taylor's poetry in the library of Yale University and published a selection from it in The New England Quarterly. The appearance of these poems, wrote Taylor's biographer Norman S. Grabo, "established [Taylor] almost at once and without quibble as not only America's finest colonial poet, but as one of the most striking writers in the whole range of American literature." His most important poems, the first sections of Preparatory Meditations (1682–1725) and God's Determinations Touching His Elect and the Elects Combat in Their Conversion and Coming up to God in Christ: Together with the Comfortable Effects Thereof (c. 1680), were published shortly after their discovery. His complete poems, however, were not published until 1960, by Donald E. Stanford. His poetical work has been defined as Metaphysical, although others have preferred to particularize it as "American Baroque”.
Taylor's poems were an expression of his deeply held religious views, acquired during a strict upbringing and shaped in adulthood by New England CongregationalistPuritans, who during the 1630s and 1640s developed rules far more demanding than those of their co-religionists in England. Alarmed by a perceived lapse in piety of those in his congregation, he concluded that professing belief and leading a scandal-free life were insufficient for full participation in the local assembly. To become communing participants, "halfway members" were required to relate by testimony some personal experience of God's saving grace leading to conversion, thus affirming that they were, in their own opinion and that of the church, assured of salvation. This requirement, expressed in the famous Halfway Covenant of 1662, was readily embraced by Taylor, who became one of its most vocal advocates.
Taylor's poems are marked by a robust spiritual content, conveyed by means of homely and vivid imagery derived from everyday Puritan surroundings and glorifying the Christian experience. Written in conjunction with his sermons, his "Meditations" each explore scriptural themes and passages, often showing Taylor's own deep understanding of doctrine, as well as his struggle with some of the contradictions within strict Puritanism. His poetry is full of his expression of love of God and of his commitment to serve his creator amid the isolation of rural life. "Taylor transcended his frontier circumstances," biographer Grabo observed, "not by leaving them behind, but by transforming them into intellectual, aesthetic, and spiritual universals."
Gerald Finzi made two settings from Taylor's Meditations. The first (op. 27.1) was the final stanza of Meditation 12, “Glorious in his apparel", which was composed as a marriage anthem for his sister-in-law in September 1946. The second (op. 27.2) was a setting of two internal stanzas from Meditation 20, “God is gone up with a triumphant shout”, commissioned for the 1951 St. Cecilia Festival Service at St.Sepulchre’s Church, Holborn.
Two settings have been made of Taylor's poem "Huswifery". That by Richard K. Winslow (b.1918) for chorus and piano was the winner of the American Music Competition of the Sigma Alpha Iota music fraternity in 1950. It was later set for A cappella chorus by Gordon Binkerd in 1970. Binkerd had earlier set “The Ebb and Flow” for A cappella chorus in 1967.
- Rowe, Karen E.Saint And Singer : Edward Taylor's Typology And The Poetics Of Meditation. Cambridge studies in American literature and culture. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1986.
- ---."Edward Taylor." In The Heath Anthology of American Literature, 3rd Edition, Paul Lauter, editor Richard Yarborough, et al., 2 vols., Boston, Houghton Mifflin (1998), vol. 1, pp. 366–407.
- ^Sketchley, Leicestershire - genealogy heraldry and history Retrieved 2018-03-08.
- ^Francis Murphy, editor, The Diary of Edward Taylor (Springfield, Mass.,1964).
- ^Norman S. Grabo, Edward Taylor (New York, 1961), pp. 22–24, 30.
- ^Thomas H. Johnson, The Poetical Works of Edward Taylor (New York, 1939), p. 11.
- ^Grabo, p. 17.
- ^Alfred Owen Aldridge, Early American Literature: A Comparatist Approach, Princeton University 1982
- ^Edmund Morgan, Visible Saints: The History of a Puritan Idea (Ithaca, N.Y., Cornell University Press, 1962), p. 62.
- ^Thomas and Virginia Davis, editors, Edward Taylor vs. Solomon Stoddard (Newark, Del., University of Delaware Press, 1997), p.47.
- ^"Edward Taylor". Poetry Foundation. Retrieved 14 November 2016.
- ^Grabo, p. 173
- ^Welcome Sweet and Sacred Feast: Choral Settings of Metaphysical Poetry by Gerald Finzi, W. Elliot Jones, University of Arizona 2010, electronic dissertation, pages 90-100
- ^Performance on YouTube
- ^"Composer Wins Music Contest", The New York Times (30 August): 27.
- ^Lieder Net
To capitalize on the student interest in metaphor at this point, we will continue down our "fond memory" adventure to explore Shel Silverstein's The Giving Tree. To introduce the application activity, I will ask students if they have any favorite Shel Silverstein works, and we will briefly discuss what we recall about them. I always share "Boa Constrictor" as one of my favorites! Then, I will cue up the YouTube reading of "The Giving Tree" on my projector. I will also emphasize that the story they will be listening to is literally about a little boy and a tree, but there is a big gap between what is "said" in the text and what is "meant" by the text. It will be our job to work through that gray area to distinguish the deeper meaning of the story!
While listening to the story, I will instruct students to write down a few things that we will later discuss, which I will list on the whiteboard before beginning the clip:
- Remembering that in our first extended metaphor example, LIFE=NOTEBOOK, what is the extended metaphor in this story? TREE=?
- Why do you feel the extended metaphor is as you described it in the first question? What evidence points to this interpretation as opposed to some other interpretation?
- What is the overall meaning or theme of the story as you've explained the metaphor?
While the story is playing, students will be writing down their ideas about what the tree represents and what evidence led them to believe this. While the video is playing, I will also create a short outline for students to review with me on the whiteboard before we begin analysis as a class. The outline will simply summarize the plot and includes how the tree feels (in a smiley or sad face after the statement) to make understanding the metaphor easier. Inserting this step allows students to have their own time to think about the larger-scale messages in the text while viewing, but it also forces students to consider the actual simple structure of the story before launching into a big dissertation on what the story was about. Omitting this step simply summarizing the story opens up the classroom discussion to ideas about allegory that are not at all supported by the progression of the text. If the outline is on the board, however, if students veer off on an unsupported or unrelated idea for the allegory, I can quickly redirect them by pointing out that their allegory interpretation must be followed through every stage of the story. The outline will look like:
- Young Boy plays with the tree, rests, relaxes.
- Older Boy wants _______________, tree gives ______________. :)
- Older Boy wants _______________, tree gives ______________. :)
- Older Boy wants _______________, tree gives ______________. :(
- Old Boy needs _________________, tree gives ______________. :)
We will review the plot, then I will allow the students to offer their perspectives on what the extended metaphor could mean and what the tree could represent. There are numerous interpretations of the story, but the most important item that the students must have is evidence to back up the metaphor completely from start to finish. I will ask probing questions to students to have them clarify their points, and all perspectives which can be reasoned through evidence will be accepted. This activity will allow for healthy debate and discussion over how students see the tree and interpret the evidence.
We will close this activity by deciding what impact the ending of Silverstein's story had on its overall meaning. This is a very important question for any story, but since this entire piece is developed around a larger metaphor, it is crucial that students understand that had the ending been different in some way, so too would have been the larger metaphor and theme. It's a rather dark story in some perspectives (and a wise tale of being selfless for others!), but in either case, the ending is important to note.